Metabolic syndrome—a new world‐wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation

  title={Metabolic syndrome—a new world‐wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation},
  author={K. George M.M. Alberti and Paul Z. Zimmet and Jonathan E. Shaw},
  journal={Diabetic Medicine},
AIMS To establish a unified working diagnostic tool for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) that is convenient to use in clinical practice and that can be used world-wide so that data from different countries can be compared. [] Key MethodPARTICIPANTS The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) convened a workshop held 12-14 May 2004 in London, UK. The 21 participants included experts in the fields of diabetes, public health, epidemiology, lipidology, genetics, metabolism, nutrition and cardiology.
The metabolic syndrome and CVD outcomes for a central Australian cohort.
The metabolic syndrome as a tool for predicting future diabetes: the AusDiab study
Objective.  To compare the ability of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a diabetes prediction model (DPM), a noninvasive risk questionnaire and individual glucose measurements to predict future diabetes.
Neck circumference as a simple tool for identifying the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: results from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study
To investigate the relationship of the neck circumference (NC) with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance (IR) in a large Brazilian population‐based sample, within a wide range of
Metabolic syndrome: diagnosis and treatment
The main objective of the treatment is to lose weight by promoting lifestyle changes in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Factor analysis of metabolic syndrome components and predicting type 2 diabetes: Results of 10‐year follow‐up in a Middle Eastern population
Factor analysis of MetS components and the effect these factors have on the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a population‐based cohort study of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) is conducted.
Prevalence and correlates of the metabolic syndrome in a population-based sample of European youth 1 – 3
The prevalence of MetS and its association with potential correlates are largely unknown and there is no unified definition of the metabolic syndrome in the youth.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and obesity or overweight is associated with insulin resistance (glucose intolerance) and Obesity or overweight.
Recommendations for revision of Chinese diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome: A nationwide study
The aim of this study was to revise the CDS‐MS criteria by removing the 2‐h PPG test and determining the optimal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) cut‐off for a diagnosis of hyperglycemia in the Chinese population.
The predictive value of metabolic syndrome for cardiovascular and all‐cause mortality: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
This work estimated the predictive value of MetS and its components for total and CVD mortality and the association of total and cardiovascular disease mortality with metabolic syndrome is controversial.
Association between insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome risk factors in Japanese
The aim of the present study was to find anthropometric and metabolic parameters that can better predict insulin resistance.


Metabolic syndrome and development of diabetes mellitus: application and validation of recently suggested definitions of the metabolic syndrome in a prospective cohort study.
The authors assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the definitions of the metabolic syndrome for prevalent and incident diabetes mellitus in a Finnish population-based cohort of middle-aged men followed for 4 years since the late 1980s.
Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes: Response to position statement of the American Diabetes Association
I would like to take issue with the use of the phrase “standards of medical care in diabetes,” which is used to describe diabetes care standards, in the recently updated and circulatedADA 2006 Clinical Practice Recommendations.
The metabolic syndrome as predictor of type 2 diabetes: the San Antonio heart study.
Lowering the fasting glucose cutoff to 5.4 mmol/l improves the prediction of diabetes by the metabolic syndrome, and the NCEP definition performs better than the modified 1999 WHO definition.
Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in nondiabetic European men and women.
The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic adult Europeans is 15%, slightly higher in men than in women, and nondiabetic persons with the metabolic Syndrome have an increased risk of death from all causes as well as cardiovascular disease.
National Cholesterol Education Program Versus World Health Organization Metabolic Syndrome in Relation to All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in the San Antonio Heart Study
Although both definitions were predictive in the general population, the simpler NCEP definition tended to be more predictive in lower-risk subjects.
The metabolic syndrome: prevalence in worldwide populations.
Metabolic Syndrome With and Without C-Reactive Protein as a Predictor of Coronary Heart Disease and Diabetes in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study
A modified NCEP metabolic syndrome definition predicts CHD events, and, more strikingly, new-onset diabetes, and thus helps identify individuals who may receive particular benefit from lifestyle measures to prevent these diseases.
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome.
The WHO definition of the metabolic syndrome identifies subjects with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and offers a tool for comparison of results from diferent studies.
The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men.
Cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality are increased in men with the metabolic syndrome, even in the absence of baseline CVD and diabetes, according to the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.
Can we apply the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel definition of the metabolic syndrome to Asians?
The optimal waist circumference for diagnosing central obesity in Asians was determined and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in an Asian population was estimated to be comparable to that in Western populations.