The aim of our study was to analyse the quality of metabolic and blood pressure control in a cohort of 101 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 males; 47 females), previously followed in primary care settings and admitted for the first time to the diabetes centres of Saint-Luc (n=66) or Mont-Godinne (n=35) University Hospitals. Age and (known) duration of diabetes were 64 +/-12 and 6 +/- 7 years (mean +/- SD), respectively. Body mass index was 31 +/- 7 kg/m2. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 140 +/-12 and 81 +/-11 mmHg. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) showed insulin sensitivity at 63 +/-32% and P-cell function at 49 +/- 44% (n=34). Forty-seven percent of patients received either diet alone or combined with an oral antidiabetic monotherapy. Seven-teen percent of all patients were on insulin monotherapy or associated with oral drugs. HbAlc was 9.0 +/- 2.3%, with 22% of patients within HbAlc targets of < or = 7%. Only a subset of patients reached international targets of care in terms of blood pressure and lipidic profile, despite antihypertensive and lipid-lowering agents in 62% and 36% of patients, respectively. Forty-five percent of individuals had at least one diabetes-related long-term complication. In view of this unsatisfactory control, our results suggest that "anti-diabetic" treatment should be intensified earlier in primary care settings.