Metabolic effects of the natural sweeteners xylitol and erythritol: A comprehensive review

  title={Metabolic effects of the natural sweeteners xylitol and erythritol: A comprehensive review},
  author={Bettina Karin W{\"o}lnerhanssen and Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach and Christoph Beglinger and Md. Shahidul Islam},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition},
  pages={1986 - 1998}
Abstract Xylitol and erythritol are widely used in a variety of food and oral care products as sugar substitutes. Although a number of studies have been conducted on the health benefits of xylitol since the 1960s, erythritol only attracted the attention of researchers during the early 1990s. Historically, researchers mainly focused on the effects of xylitol and other sugar alcohols on oral and dental healthcare while the anti-diabetic or antihyperglycemic effects have only been revealed… Expand
Biological and Pharmacological Potential of Xylitol: A Molecular Insight of Unique Metabolism
Some alternative approaches and recent advancements that significantly improve the yield and lower the cost of production of xylitol are summarized. Expand
Suitability of Sugar Alcohols as Antidiabetic Supplements: A Review
The present review focuses on the evidence supporting the use of sugar alcohols in the management of diabetes, by evaluating their physical and chemical properties, metabolism, absorption, glycemic and insulinemic responses. Expand
Health benefits of xylitol
Xylitol can reduce constipation, diabetes, obesity, and other body syndromes or illnesses; it has also revealed its stimulating effect on digestion and immune system; it can produce some side effects such as irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea, nephrolithiasis, etc., when consumed in excessive amounts. Expand
Metabolic engineering of the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica PO1f for production of erythritol from glycerol
A new route for increasing sugar alcohol production is established and Y. lipolytica is developed as a promising host for erythritol production from cheap substrates such as glycerol as well as analysis of intracellular metabolites revealed that amino acids, sugar alcohols, and polyamines are produced at higher levels in response to osmotic stress. Expand
The complex relationship between metabolic syndrome and sweeteners.
In order to formulate sugar-free or noncaloric food products for the metabolic syndrome market, several factors need to be considered, including the dose, proportions, human metabolism, and interaction of sweeteners with gut microbiota and sweet-taste receptors. Expand
Mammalian metabolism of erythritol: a predictive biomarker of metabolic dysfunction
Elevated serum erythritol predicts risk for cardiometabolic disease, but more research is required to maximize its utility as a biomarker, including characterizing the determinants of endogenous erystritol synthesis from glucose. Expand
Bioactivity Potential of Industrial Sunflower Meal Ethanol-Wash Solute Obtained as Waste from Protein Isolation Process
Industrial sunflower meal is rich in secondary metabolites, which negatively influence the quality and functional properties of respective protein isolates. To reduce their quantity, sunflower mealExpand
Metabolic engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for thermoresistance and enhanced erythritol productivity
The strategy developed herein yielded an engineered Y. lipolytica strain with enhanced thermoresistance and NADPH supply, resulting in a higher ability to produce erythritol, but not mannitol or d -arabitol from glucose. Expand
Probiotic goat milk tablets: Formulation optimization and stability evaluation
Abstract In this study, a D-optimal mixture design was adopted to evaluate the effect of different excipient combinations of xylitol, erythritol, mannitol, sodium alginate, and microcrystallineExpand
Improvement of the textural characteristics of curdlan gel by the formation of hydrogen bonds with erythritol
Abstract The addition of sugar and polyols can enhance the structure of gels. To prevent the overconsumption of sugar, the polyol erythritol was used to investigate the gelation mechanism of curdlanExpand


Erythritol Is More Effective Than Xylitol and Sorbitol in Managing Oral Health Endpoints
Evidence is provided demonstrating better efficacy of erythritol compared to sorbitol and xylitol to maintain and improve oral health. Expand
Erythritol: an interpretive summary of biochemical, metabolic, toxicological and clinical data.
  • I. Munro, W. Berndt, +5 authors J. Modderman
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 1998
It can be concluded, based on the available studies, that erythritol did not produce evidence of toxicity and this finding supports the use of the animal species used to evaluate the safety of eryhritol for human consumption. Expand
Health potential of polyols as sugar replacers, with emphasis on low glycaemic properties
  • G. Livesey
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Nutrition Research Reviews
  • 2003
Improved glycated haemoglobin as a marker of glycaemic control was found in a 12-week study of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients consuming polyol, adding to other studies showing improved glucose control on ingestion of low-GI carbohydrate. Expand
Erythritol is a sweet antioxidant.
Erythritol acts as an antioxidant in vivo and may help protect against hyperglycemia-induced vascular damage in diabetic patients and in the streptozotocin diabetic rat. Expand
Erythritol Attenuates Postprandial Blood Glucose by Inhibiting α-Glucosidase.
It is suggested that erythritol may not only serve as a glucose substitute but also be a useful agent in the treatment of DM to help manage postprandial blood glucose levels. Expand
Effects of xylitol on metabolic parameters and visceral fat accumulation
In conclusion, intake of xylitol may be beneficial in preventing the development of obesity and metabolic abnormalities in rats with diet-induced obesity. Expand
Sugar Alcohol Sweeteners as Alternatives to Sugar with Special Consideration of Xylitol
Partial sugar substitution with polyols is an important dietary tool in the prevention of dental caries that should be used to enhance existing fluoride-based caries prevention programmes. Expand
Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects.
With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate thatExpand
Human gut microbiota does not ferment erythritol
Investigation of whether fresh human intestinal microbiota is able to adapt its enzyme activities to erythritol turned out to be completely resistant to bacterial attack within 24 h, thus excluding an adaptation within that period. Expand
Gastrointestinal tolerance of erythritol and xylitol ingested in a liquid
When consumed in water, 35 and 50 g xylitol was associated with significant intestinal symptom scores and watery faeces, compared to the sucrose control, whereas at all levels studied erythritol scored significantly less symptoms. Expand