Analysis of outcome of pregnancy in type 1 diabetics treated with insulin pump or conventional insulin therapy
OBJECTIVE To assess metabolic control and pregnancy outcome in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in a defined rural area of Sweden and to compare results for three four-year periods (1982-85, 1986-89, 1990-93). MATERIAL AND METHOD All pregnancies in women with IDDM during the 12-year period, 1982-93, received their antenatal care from a 'diabetic team' at the County Hospital, Ostersund. There were 50 women in the series, accounting for a total of 91 pregnancies. Spontaneous or induced abortions occurred in 19 cases. Case notes from maternity, neonatal and pediatric care were retrospectively scrutinized. RESULTS In period one 31% of the pregnancies occurred in gravidae with diabetes classified as White D, F or R, as compared with 46% and 71% during periods two and three (p=0.001). Maternal hypertension was also more frequent in period three (12%, 26% and 54%, respectively; p=0.001). Fewer antenatal admissions (p=0.02) but more frequent ultrasound scannings (p=0.014) were recorded for period three. HbA1c levels decreased continuously from prepregnancy through first and third trimesters (9.7%, 8.4%, and 7.4%, respectively; p<0.0001). Perinatal mortality and frequencies of congenital malformations were both 4.2% (95% CI 0.5-8.8%), whereas the miscarriage rate was 14.3% (95% CI 6.8-21.8%). CONCLUSIONS As compared with the first 4-year period, 1982-85, the third period, 1990-93, was characterized by a greater proportion of gravidae with more serious diabetes and a higher rate of pregnancy complications, though the outcome was nonetheless good, suggesting the diabetic pregnancy care program to have been efficacious.