Comparison of five peptide vectors for improved brain delivery of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A.
Short- and long-term regulation of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism by insulin-like growth factor II was studied in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes and compared to the metabolic potency of insulin. Insulin-like growth factor II stimulated glycogen synthesis from [14C]glucose, uptake of [3H]aminoisobutyric acid and [14C]lactate formation from [14C]glucose up to three-fold. Basal glycogenolysis was inhibited to about 10%, and glucagon-activated glycogenolysis was blocked completely. The enzymatic activity of glucokinase and pyruvate kinase was induced two-fold, the glucagon-dependent induction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was antagonized. Compared to insulin, half-maximal responses required up to 50 times higher insulin-like growth factor II concentrations ranging from 10–20 nmol/l. A similar difference was observed for binding affinity of insulin-like growth factor II to the insulin receptor. The interaction with the insulin-like growth factor II/man-nose 6-phosphate (IGF-II/Man-6-P) receptor was examined by studying 125I-insulin-like growth factor II binding and uptake of lysosomal enzymes. The affinity of insulin-like growth factor II to the IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor was considerably higher than for the insulin receptor. Antibodies against the IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor did not affect metabolic responses to insulin-like growth factor II, while binding to its receptor and the receptor-mediated endocytosis of arylsulphatase A were strongly inhibited. Thus, in adult rat liver insulin-like growth factor II appeared to exert metabolic actions not via interaction with its own receptor but through low affinity binding to hepatic insulin receptors.