Metabolic acidosis and the importance of balanced equations

  title={Metabolic acidosis and the importance of balanced equations},
  author={Andrew N. Lane and Teresa W.-M. Fan and Richard M. Higashi},
Balancing biochemical equations for both mass and charge in metabolic networks is critical but unfortunately ignored too often. Failure to do so, for example, results in a common misconception about the origin of protons during lactic fermentation. Lactate, rather than lactic acid, is produced by glycolysis, and its production is a mechanism for alleviating intracellular acidosis due to glycolysis. This error is at the core of some recent papers, and is often ambiguous in biochemistry textbooks… 
Glycolysis - Wikipedia
  • Chemistry, Biology
  • 2018
Glycolysis is a determined sequence of ten enzyme -catalyzed reactions that generate monosaccharides, which are then converted to sugars and fatty acids to form fat.
Metabolic interaction between urea cycle and citric acid cycle shunt: A guided approach
  • R. Pesi, F. Balestri, P. L. Ipata
  • Biology
    Biochemistry and molecular biology education : a bimonthly publication of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  • 2018
All single reactions and overall equations leading to the metabolic interaction between ureagenesis and citric acid cycle to be incorporated into a two‐three lecture series about the interaction of urea cycle with other metabolic pathways are presented.
Energy Metabolism by the Yeast Cell
Although studies on the glycolytic pathway began with Pasteur in the mid-nineteenth century and then Buchner with cell-free extracts, during the twentieth century, this research was central for generating major advances in biochemistry together with massive economic applications.
Rapid Analysis of Glycolytic and Oxidative Substrate Flux of Cancer Cells in a Microplate
These rapid, sensitive and high-throughput substrate flux analysis methods introduce highly valuable approaches for developing a greater understanding of genetic and epigenetic pathways that regulate cellular metabolism, and the development of therapies that target cancer metabolism.
Structure preserving algorithms for mathematical model of auto-catalytic glycolysis chemical reaction and numerical simulations
This paper aims to develop positivity preserving splitting techniques for glycolysis reaction–diffusion chemical model. The positivity of state variables in the glycolysis model is an essential
The Spatial Organization of Proton and Lactate Transport in a Rat Brain Tumor
The classic view that most of the net proton efflux from C6 gliomas originates in glycolytic formation of lactate and H+ inside the tumor is supported, but add that some lactate is taken up into cells in the rim on MCT1, and some lactates diffuses away, leaving its associated protons available to re-enter cells for extrusion on NHE1.
Contribution of pH Alterations to the Tumor Microenvironment
The acidic conditions created within the tumor microenvironment may represent a selection force for more aggressive cancer cells and at the same time a toxic environment for stromal cells.
Proton channels and exchangers in cancer.
Synchronization of the Glycolysis Reaction-Diffusion Model via Linear Control Law
In the present work, the synchronization problem of the glycolysis reaction-diffusion model is handled and the stability of the associated error system is demonstrated through utilizing a suitable Lyapunov function.
In vivo pH in metabolic‐defective Ras‐transformed fibroblast tumors: Key role of the monocarboxylate transporter, MCT4, for inducing an alkaline intracellular pH
The in vivo results support a multipronged approach to tumor treatment based on minimizing intracellular pH by targeting several proton production and proton transport processes, among which the very efficient MCT4 proton/lactate co‐transport deserves particular attention.


Acid production in glycolysis-impaired tumors provides new insights into tumor metabolism.
Evidence is found supporting the hypothesis that tumor cells rely on glutaminolysis for energy production and that the pentose phosphate pathway is highly active within tumor cells and suggesting that the tricarboxylic acid cycle is saturable and that different metabolic pathways are activated to provide for energyproduction and biosynthesis.
The proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family: structure, function and regulation.
There is still much work to be done to characterize the properties of the different MCT isoforms and their regulation, which may have wide-ranging implications for health and disease.
Why do cancers have high aerobic glycolysis?
It is proposed that persistent metabolism of glucose to lactate even in aerobic conditions is an adaptation to intermittent hypoxia in pre-malignant lesions, which leads to microenvironmental acidosis requiring evolution to phenotypes resistant to acid-induced cell toxicity.
Intracellular pH regulation in leukocytes: mechanisms and functional significance.
Several pHi regulatory mechanisms, including the sodium-proton exchanger, proton conductive pathways, and a vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase exist in leukocytes and play an important role in preventing deviations in the pHi away from the physiological range.
Molecular features, regulation, and function of monocarboxylate transporters: implications for drug delivery.
The expression of MCT1 in the epithelium of the small intestine and colon and in the blood-brain barrier may provide routes for the intestinal and blood to brain transfer of carboxylated pharmaceutical agents and other exogenous monocarboxylates.
Lactic Acid--The Latest Performance-Enhancing Drug
By altering the activity of chloride ion channels, lactic acid may actually boost the generation of action potentials and, hence, muscle activity even as the muscles begin to fatigue.
Intracellular pH measurements by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. Influence of factors other than pH on 31P chemical shifts.
The results clearly indicate that knowledge of intracellular ionic strength and free Mg2+ concentrations in the sample are required if the determination of intrACEllular pH by 31P NMR is to be considered accurate within +/- 0.05-01 pH unit.
An in vivo 1H and 31P NMR investigation of the effect of nitrate on hypoxic metabolism in maize roots.
Effect of cell spreading on cytoplasmic pH in normal and transformed fibroblasts.
The results suggest that the requirement for spreading may in part be mediated by cytoplasmic pH, and Anchorage-independent growth due to oncogenes that localize to the plasma membrane is associated with loss of this control mechanism.
Regulation of cytoplasmic pH by Na+/H+ exchange