Metabolic Fate of Ellagitannins: Implications for Health, and Research Perspectives for Innovative Functional Foods

  title={Metabolic Fate of Ellagitannins: Implications for Health, and Research Perspectives for Innovative Functional Foods},
  author={Cristina Garc{\'i}a-Mu{\~n}oz and Fabrice Vaillant},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition},
  pages={1584 - 1598}
Consumption of dietary ellagitannins (ETs) has been associated with different health benefits. Nonetheless, ETs are not bioavailable as such and are metabolized in vivo. They are partially converted into ellagic acid (EA) in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but this first metabolite is also poorly bioavailable. In the lower GI tract, EA and residual ETs are metabolized by gut microbiota to produce urolithins, which, together with their conjugate relatives, persist at relatively high… 

Food Ellagitannins: Structure, Metabolomic Fate, and Biological Properties

New insights show that ETs are bioconver-ted by microbiota in the gut into metabolites called urolithins, which are bioavailable and can reach relatively high physiological concentration in the body up to 7 days after ingestion.

Improvements in Metabolic Health with Consumption of Ellagic Acid and Subsequent Conversion into Urolithins: Evidence and Mechanisms.

How intake of EA regulates lipid metabolism in vitro and in vivo is summarized, and the potential mechanisms of action of EA on obesity-mediated metabolic complications are delineated, suggesting that EA may exert a broader spectrum of health benefits than has been demonstrated to date.

Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Capabilities, and Bioavailability: Ellagic Acid or Urolithins?

This review focuses on the pathophysiology of OS; on EA and UROs chemical features and on the mechanisms of their antioxidant activity, as well as dietary assumption of EA, EA-enriched functional foods, and food supplements.

Ellagic acid and intestinal microflora metabolite urolithin A: A review on its sources, metabolic distribution, health benefits, and biotransformation.

The source and metabolic pathway of ellagic tannins, and the mechanisms of the biological function of a metabolite, urolithin A, are discussed and the current strategies of biotransformation to obtain urolithsin A are expounded to provide ideas for further studies on the relationship between urologyithin and human health.

Bacterial metabolism as responsible of beneficial effects of phytoestrogens on human health

The most recent findings about the bacteria able to metabolize PE, together with the latest studies on the effects of PE on health are reviewed, and an approach to ensure the access to bioactive PE is explored.

Dietary Black Raspberries Impact the Colonic Microbiome and Phytochemical Metabolites in Mice

It is demonstrated that microbially produced phytochemical metabolites are present in the colon and systemic circulation where they may exert biological activity.

Protective Effects of Ellagitannin-Rich Strawberry Extracts on Biochemical and Metabolic Disturbances in Rats Fed a Diet High in Fructose

The diet-induced fructose-related disturbances observed in biochemical parameters are regulated by both extracts; nevertheless, the beneficial effects of the ME extract are mostly associated with systemic parameters, while those of the DE extracts are associated with local microbial activity.

Urolithins, the rescue of "old" metabolites to understand a "new" concept: Metabotypes as a nexus among phenolic metabolism, microbiota dysbiosis, and host health status.

The role and potential of urolithins in human health are critically reviewed, and a perspective of the research approach needed to demonstrate these health effects is presented, based on the existing knowledge.



Iberian pig as a model to clarify obscure points in the bioavailability and metabolism of ellagitannins in humans.

The whole metabolism of ETs is shown for the first time, confirming previous studies in humans and explaining the long persistency of urolithin metabolites in the body mediated by an active enterohepatic circulation.

Effects of fruit ellagitannin extracts, ellagic acid, and their colonic metabolite, urolithin A, on Wnt signaling.

The effects of UA, EA, and ET-rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line were investigated using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation, suggesting that ET- rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon.

Occurrence of urolithins, gut microbiota ellagic acid metabolites and proliferation markers expression response in the human prostate gland upon consumption of walnuts and pomegranate juice.

The results suggest that urolithin glucuronides and dimethyl ellagic acid may be the molecules responsible for the beneficial effects of PJ against PCa.

Urolithins, intestinal microbial metabolites of Pomegranate ellagitannins, exhibit potent antioxidant activity in a cell-based assay.

Results showed that the antioxidant activity of urolithins was correlated with the number of hydroxy groups as well as the lipophilicity of the molecule.

Ellagitannins : nature, occurrence and dietary burden

It seems unlikely that normal consumption of ellagitannins can cause toxic effects in man, but any attempt to increase the intake significantly in pursuit of the suggested benefits should be resisted until the metabolism and pharmacokinetics are better understood.

Gastrointestinal microflora, food components and colon cancer prevention.

Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice.

Metabolism of antioxidant and chemopreventive ellagitannins from strawberries, raspberries, walnuts, and oak-aged wine in humans: identification of biomarkers and individual variability.

Results indicate that urolithin B (a previously described antiangiogenic and hyaluronidase inhibitor compound) is a biomarker of human exposure to dietary ETs and may be useful in intervention studies with ET-containing products.