BACKGROUND The optimal management of patients with Barrett's-associated low-grade dysplasia (LGD) is unclear. The objective of this study was to identify systematically all reports of endoscopic treatment of LGD, and to assess outcomes in terms of disease progression, eradication of dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia, and complication rates. METHODS A systematic review of articles reporting endoscopic treatment of LGD was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched to identify the relevant literature. Rates of complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CE-IM) and dysplasia (CE-D) were reported. The pooled incidence of progression to cancer was calculated following endoscopic therapy. RESULTS Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria, reporting outcomes of endoscopic therapy for 521 patients with LGD. The pooled incidence of progression to cancer was 3·90 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 1·27 to 9·10) per 1000 patient-years. CE-IM and CE-D were achieved in 67·8 (95 per cent c.i. 50·2 to 81·5) and 88·9 (83·9 to 92·5) per cent of patients respectively. The commonest adverse event was stricture formation. CONCLUSION Reports of endoscopic therapy were heterogeneous and follow-up periods were short. There is a high likelihood of historical overdiagnosis of LGD. Endoscopic therapy, particularly radiofrequency ablation, appears safe and effective at eradicating LGD, but does not eliminate the risk of progression to cancer.