Meta‐analysis of digit ratio 2D:4D shows greater sex difference in the right hand

  title={Meta‐analysis of digit ratio 2D:4D shows greater sex difference in the right hand},
  author={Johannes H{\"o}nekopp and Steven J. Watson},
  journal={American Journal of Human Biology},
Our aims are, first, to describe the sex difference in the length ratio of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D), which likely reflects prenatal testosterone levels in humans. Second, to infer the loss of reliability observed in 2D:4D based on self‐measured finger lengths. 
Digit ratio (2D:4D): Is it possible to use it for sex determination in the study of human skeletal remains?
The aim of this study was to ascertain possibility of using the 2D:4D ratio as an additional marker for sex determination in the study of human skeletal remains.
Correlation of 2D:4D digit ratio and craniofacial shape in prepubertal children
  • K. VallaD. Halazonetis
  • Medicine
    American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 2014
The aim was to investigate correlation between the 2D:4D ratio and the shape of the craniofacial skeleton in a population of prepubertal children.
Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is associated with dementia in women.
Sexual dimorphism in the ontogeny of second (2D) and fourth (4D) digit lengths, and digit ratio (2D:4D)
  • J. ManningB. Fink
  • Psychology, Geology
    American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 2018
Sex differences are often reported in digit lengths and digit ratio (2D:4D). However, the ontogeny of these sex differences and their interrelationships are less well known.
The digit ratio (2D:4D) in China: A meta‐analysis
  • Yin XuYong Zheng
  • Business
    American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 2015
To explore the 2D:4D in China (mainland and Taiwan) and to analyze the influences of ethnicity, digit measurement methods, age, and latitude on Chinese 2D-4D, this research presents a probabilistic model.
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength in subjects of Han ethnicity: impact of sex and age.
There was a sex-specific correlation between 2D:4D and handgrip strength, and this relationship may be driven by sexual selection operating on fetal programming.
Digit ratio (2D:4D) in Klinefelter's syndrome
It is concluded that KS males have mean 2D:4D values similar to those found in female population norms, and testosterone supplementation in KS males may be most common for individuals with low right 2D to fourth digit length.
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and handedness: A meta-analysis of the available literature
A meta-analysis of correlations between handedness and digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal testosterone, results do not confirm any theory linking prenatal androgens with handedness, so it is speculated they instead reflect the mechanical action of writing causing subtle changes in the musculature and/or fat pads of the fingers.
Second to fourth digit ratio: a predictor of adult penile length.
It is suggested that the digit ratio can predict adult penile size and that the effects of prenatal testosterone may in part explain the differences in adultPenile length.


Digit Ratios (2D:4D and other) and Relative Thumb Length: A Test of Developmental Stability
These findings mirror those reported for the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a likely biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal androgens on the human brain and body, and appear to be developmentally unstable.
A longitudinal study of digit ratio (2D:4D) and other finger ratios in Jamaican children
Digit ratio (2D:4D), dominance, reproductive success, asymmetry, and sociosexuality in the BBC Internet Study
  • J. ManningB. Fink
  • Psychology
    American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 2008
The BBC Internet Study of sex differences in which finger lengths were self‐measured shows sexual dimorphism, ethnic differences and higherDimorphism of right 2D:4D than left, thereby indicating that 2D-4D does measure real between‐participant variation.
Photocopies Yield Lower Digit Ratios (2D:4D) Than Direct Finger Measurements
Differences in digit ratios obtained from photocopies and direct measurements, and these differences arise from length differences recorded from the different protocols, should not be combined within one study nor should they be used together in comparative studies.
Are 2D:4D finger-length ratios related to sexual orientation? Yes for men, no for women.
  • R. Lippa
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 2003
Findings add to evidence that prenatal hormonal factors may be linked to men's sexual orientation as well as ethnic groups, after ethnicity was taken into account.
Digit Ratio (2D:4D), Lateral Preferences, and Performance in Fencing
The present research tested the hypothesis that 2D:4D might be a performance indicator for men across a variety of sports and found it to be related to high performance in running, soccer, and skiing.
The 2nd:4th digit ratio and asymmetry of hand performance in Jamaican children
Testosterone, particularly prenatal testosterone, has been implicated in the aetiology of many extragenital sexually dimorphic traits and it is suggested that the 2D:4D ratio may be associated with the expression of other sexuallyDimorphic behavioural traits.