Mesozoic cupules and the origin of the angiosperm second integument.

  title={Mesozoic cupules and the origin of the angiosperm second integument.},
  author={Gongle Shi and Fabiany Herrera and Patrick S. Herendeen and Elizabeth G. Clark and Peter R. Crane},
The second integument of the angiosperm ovule is unique among seed plants, with developmental genetics that are distinct from those of the inner integument1. Understanding how the second integument should be compared to structures in other seed plants is therefore crucial to resolving the long-standing question of the origin of angiosperms2-6. Attention has focused on several extinct plants with recurved cupules that are reminiscent of the anatropous organization of the basic bitegmic ovules of… 

Silicified cupulate seed-bearing structures from the Early Cretaceous of eastern Inner Mongolia, China: rethinking the corystosperm concept

The group referred to informally as the corystosperms, described initially based on compression fossils from the Triassic of Gondwana, have long been considered critical extinct plants for

A permineralized Early Cretaceous lycopsid from China and the evolution of crown clubmosses.

Recognition of Lycopodicaulis in Asia during the Early Cretaceous indicates the presence of crown Lycopodiaceae at this time, and striking similarities of stem anatomy with extant species provide a framework for the understanding of the interaction of branching and vascular anatomy in crown-group lycopsids.

Case not closed: the mystery of the origin of the carpel

This review aims to present an overview of existing theories of carpel evolution with a particular emphasis on those that account for the structures that preceded the carpel and/or present testable developmental hypotheses.

Serial Section-Based Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Anaxagorea (Annonaceae) Carpel Vasculature and Implications for the Morphological Relationship between the Carpel and the Ovule

In Anaxagorea, the vasculature in the carpel branches in the form of shoots, providing anatomical evidence of the composite origin of theCarpel.

The Arabidopsis INNER NO OUTER (INO) gene acts exclusively and quantitatively in regulation of ovule outer integument development

The altered protein of an ino mRNA splicing mutant with a less severe phenotype does not have INO activity, and the mutant is partial because it produces a small amount of correctly spliced INO mRNA.

Polish Palaeobotany: 750 Million Years of Plant History as Revealed in a Century of Studies. Palaeozoic Microflora

All the palynological studies of the Polish Paleozoic were conducted during the last 100 years. The investigations regarded the oldest microflora remains, acritarchs reaching up to Precambrian, and



Angiosperm ovules: diversity, development, evolution.

The present review provides a synthetic treatment of several aspects of the sporophytic part of ovule diversity, development and evolution, based on extensive research on the vast original literature and on experience from my own comparative studies in a broad range of angiosperm clades.

Anatomy of umkomasia (corystospermales) from the triassic of antarctica.

Both anatomical and morphological features support interpretation of corystosperm reproductive structures as branching systems rather than as compound sporophylls.

Integrating Molecular Phylogenetic and Paleobotanical Evidence on Origin of the Flower

  • J. Doyle
  • Biology
    International Journal of Plant Sciences
  • 2008
Results and developmental genetic data are consistent with homology of the angiosperm bitegmic ovule with the cupule of glossopterids and Caytonia, while the carpel could represent a leaf and a cupule‐bearing axillary branch in living basal angiosperms.

Origin of Angiosperms

In the apparent absence of critical fossil evidence, ideas on the origin of angios­ perms have been based largely on comparative morphology of modern plants, including Axelrod's theory that the angiosperms originated and began to diversify extensively in tropical upland areas as early as the Permian or Triassic.

After a dozen years of progress the origin of angiosperms is still a great mystery

The ‘anthophyte theory’, the dominant concept of the 1980s and 1990s, has been eclipsed; Gnetales, previously thought to be closest to the angiosperms, are related instead to other extant gymnos perms, probably most closely to conifers.

Diversity and homologies of corystosperm seed-bearing structures from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia

The consistent reproductive architecture of the seed-bearing structures in all three corystosperm species, with a bract subtending a variously modified axis bearing ovules, is similar to the situation in Ginkgo and conifers.

Habit and Ecology of the Petriellales, an Unusual Group of Seed Plants from the Triassic of Gondwana

The hitherto enigmatic Petriellales are now among the most comprehensively reconstructed groups of extinct seed plants and emerge as promising candidates for elucidating the mysterious origin of the angiosperm carpel.

Geminispermum, an Early Cretaceous (early–middle Albian) cupulate unit from the angiosperm-dominated Puddledock flora of eastern North America

Geminispermum is currently the only unequivocal seed plant cupule recovered from the Early Cretaceous Potomac Group and is distinct from all previously described cupulate reproductive structures.

New perspectives on the Mesozoic seed fern order Corystospermales based on attached organs from the Triassic of Antarctica.

Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the corystosperm cupule is an unlikely homologue for the angiosperm carpel or outer integument, and studies that treat Dicroidium leaf morphospecies as proxies for biological species of entire plants should be reconsidered.

A hidden cradle of plant evolution in Permian tropical lowlands

Mixed plant-fossil assemblages from Permian equatorial lowlands in present-day Jordan are presented that harbor precocious records of three major seed-plant lineages that all became dominant during the Mesozoic, including the oldest representative of any living conifer family.