Mesopredator release and avifaunal extinctions in a fragmented system

@article{Crooks1999MesopredatorRA,
  title={Mesopredator release and avifaunal extinctions in a fragmented system},
  author={Kevin R. Crooks and Michael E. Soul{\'e}},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1999},
  volume={400},
  pages={563-566}
}
Mammalian carnivores are particularly vulnerable to extinction in fragmented landscapes, and their disappearance may lead to increased numbers of smaller carnivores that are principle predators of birds and other small vertebrates. Such ‘mesopredator release’ has been implicated in the decline and extinction of prey species. Because experimental manipulation of carnivores is logistically, financially and ethically problematic,, however, few studies have evaluated how trophic cascades generated… 

Impacts of generalist mesopredators on the demography of small-mammal populations in fragmented landscapes

This research suggests that further investiga- tion of the trophic dynamics of agricultural ecosystems is critical if it is to elucidate the fundamental ecological mecha- nisms associated with the persistence of species in disturbed environments.

Could controlling mammalian carnivores lead to mesopredator release of carnivorous reptiles?

The need for managers to adopt a whole-of-community approach when attempting to manage predators for sustained fauna conservation is highlighted, and that additional research is required to elucidate whether mesopredator release of varanids is a widespread consequence of carnivore management, altering the intended faunal responses.

Effects of Culling on Mesopredator Population Dynamics

Although culling is commonly used to control local populations of many mesopredators, it is demonstrated that such practices create severe disruptions in population demography that may be counterproductive to disease management in fragmented landscapes due to an influx of dispersing males into depopulated areas.

Implications of mesopredator release for biodiversity conservation, with particular reference to Australian systems

The essay opens with a critical assessment of the mesopredator release concept and concentrates on terrestrial examples and, specifically, studies involving mammals in recognition of Australia’s diverse and unique mammalian fauna.

Mesopredator Release Theory: Comparing Mesocarnivore Abundance and Prey Choices in an Urban Landscape and Impacts on Prey Populations

A 2013 study by the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute estimated that un-owned and owned free-ranging domestic cats (Feliscatus) kill between 1.4 and 3.7 billion birds and between 6.9 and

Spatiotemporal Coexistence of Mesopredators and Their Prey in a Defaunated Neotropical Rainforest

Forest loss and fragmentation have a negative impact on large-sized predators and prey, whose populations are reduced or extirpated locally. We explored the spatiotemporal coexistence of the

Keystone effects of an alien top-predator stem extinctions of native mammals

This study provides evidence that an alien top predator can assume a keystone role and be beneficial for biodiversity conservation, and also that mammalian carnivores more generally can generate strong trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 18 REFERENCES

Are large predators keystone species in Neotropical forests ? The evidence from Barro Colorado Island.

An evaluation of the qualitative historical evidence indicates that as cats were eliminated from BCI by poaching, many potential prey species population densities increased, however, these increases were not sustained, and may reflect natural population variability rather than the status of large cats.

Reconstructed Dynamics of Rapid Extinctions of Chaparral‐Requiring Birds in Urban Habitat Islands

The distribution of native, chaparral-requiring bird species was determined for 37 isolated fragments of canyon habitat ranging in size from 0.4 to 104 hectares in coasta4 urban San Diego County,

Song sparrows, top carnivores and nest predation: a test of the mesopredator release hypothesis

The present study contributes to a growing body of evidence derived from a number of studies supporting the mesopredator release hypothesis, and may have decreased nest predation in 1994–1996 by reducing the abundance of raccoons, apparently the main nest predator in the study area.

Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas

The species most likely to disappear from small reserves are those that range widely-and are therefore most exposed to threats on reserve borders-irrespective of population size, so that border areas represent population sinks.

Occurrence Patterns of Bird Species in Habitat Fragments: Sampling, Extinction, and Nested Species Subsets

It is confirmed that rapid population extinction of resident bird species has occurred in urban chaparral fragments, and a strong positive correlation between the relative persistence ability of a species and its density remains even after correcting for the sampling effect of area.

Food chain dynamics: the central theory of ecology?

This research program, called Food Chain Dynamics, is extended to include the field of community ecology, and arguments are offered defending the position that this research program could be regarded as the central theory of ecology, at least as important as the theory of evolution.

Differential effects of coyotes and red foxes on duck nest success

Management of coyotes may be an effective method for increasing duck nest success in uplands of 36 areas managed for nesting ducks in North Dakota and South Dakota.

Nest Predation in Forest Tracts and the Decline of Migratory Songbirds

Artificial nests with fresh quail eggs were placed in forests of different sizes in Maryland and Tennessee to test the hypothesis that migratory songbirds should be strongly affected by higher predation rates in small forest tracts.

Top-Level Carnivores and Ecosystem Effects: Questions and Approaches

Top-level carnivores comprise a diverse array of taxa and occur in most natural ecosystems. This chapter considers three main questions: What are the ecological and evolutionary effects of top-level

Predation on artificial nests in large forest blocks

Neotropical migrant birds are declining within many forest communities in North America and concern exists regarding the impact of forest fragmentation on their breeding success, particularly with