Recruited bone marrow-derived circulating cells (RBCCs) play a key role in therapeutic neovascularization. Several important steps take place during this process, which include mobilization, migration, recruitment, adhesion and invasion, entrapment, differentiation, as well as paracrine functions. Recent study indicated that recruitment and entrapment of RBCCs are vital steps in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis. This entrapment is modulated by another important chemokine: stromal derived factor 1 (SDF-1). We reason that the enhancement of entrapment might be a novel target for therapeutic neovascularization. Therefore we hypothesize that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells that secrete VEGF in situ could be transfected with SDF-1 (MSC(SDF-1)). Their combination could augment mobilization, recruitment, survival, and above all the entrapment of RBCCs, all of which might greatly augment the angiogenesis pathway. For these reasons, we further hypothesize that MSC(SDF-1) might become a next generation cell/chemokine therapy for therapeutic neovascularization.