Merkel cell carcinoma and HIV infection

  title={Merkel cell carcinoma and HIV infection},
  author={Eric A. Engels and Morten Frisch and James J. Goedert and Robert J. Biggar and Robert W. Miller},
  journal={The Lancet},
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare skin cancer that occurs more frequently after organ transplantation or B-cell malignancy, conditions of suppressed or disordered immunity. To assess further whether immune suppression increases MCC risk, we studied its occurrence in a cohort of 309365 individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by using linked AIDS and cancer registries. We identified six cases of MCC, corresponding to a relative risk of 13.4 (95% CI 4.9-29.1) compared with… Expand
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Merkel Cell Carcinoma, France
The similarity between MCC and Kaposi sarcoma may support the hypothesis of an infectious origin of MCC, a malignant tumor associated with human herpesvirus 8 infection. Expand
Merkel Cell Carcinoma in the HIV-1/AIDS Patient.
MCC in patients living with HIV-1/AIDS are treated with similar modalities as HIV- 1 uninfected individuals with MCC, and checkpoint blockade inhibitors targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 have shown remarkable activity including durable long-term. Expand
New virus associated with merkel cell carcinoma development.
Investigation discovered a genome encompassing 5387 base pairs of a new polyomvirus, subsequently named the Merkel cell polyomavirus, suggesting UV radiation exposure may play a role in the development of MCC. Expand
Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients
Overall, immunocompromised patients also appear to have an early onset and more aggressive course of MCC, with poorer outcomes, and recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to effectively prevent and manage MCC in these patients. Expand
Merkel Cell Carcinoma: An Update and Immunotherapy
Several studies have shown that a subset of MCCs express PD-1 on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and express PD, which suggests an endogenous tumor-reactive immune response that might be unleashed by anti-PD-1 or anti- PD-L1 drugs. Expand
Merkel cell carcinoma.
The increasing incidence, the aggressive behavior of this malignancy, the unknown etio-pathogenesis, and the paucity of options for the treatment of advanced disease call for the need of optimal, standardized management of this neoplasm. Expand
Updates on Merkel Cell Carcinoma.
Surgical excision with margins of 1 to 2 cm remains first-line therapy for early-stage MCC, but robust evidence supporting immunotherapy for patients with advanced disease has led to recent approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of advanced MCC. Expand
Merkel cell carcinoma in organ transplant recipients: Case reports and review of the literature
2 cases of MCC occurring in organ transplant recipients (OTRs) are reported, illustrating how iatrogenic immunosuppression in the setting of organ transplantation can impact tumor progression and potentially decrease survival. Expand
Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Review
Merkel cell carcinoma is synonymous with primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, but there is also an increased incidence among immunosuppressed patients, and Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become an integral part of the staging of patients with MCC. Expand
Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Human Immunodeficiency Virus: More Than a Non-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-Defining Tumor?
The association of MCC with HIV is reviewed and the relationship of moderate but prolonged immunosuppression, which results from HIV disease, and its connection with non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers is discussed, suggesting that MCC and other malignancies may need to be reconsidered for classification as acquired immuno-suffering conditions. Expand


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MCC and melanoma are similarly related to sun exposure and immunosuppression, but they differ markedly from one another in their distributions by age, race, and anatomical site, especially the face. Expand
Merkel's cell carcinoma in organ recipients: report of 41 cases.
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Association of cancer with AIDS-related immunosuppression in adults.
Although occurring in overall excess, most non-AIDS-defining cancers do not appear to be influenced by the advancing immunosuppression associated with HIV disease progression. Expand
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Imaging studies have a limited role in diagnosis of the clinically evident primary skin lesions, but may be helpful in the assessment of the depth of the invasion and are crucial in the evaluation of regional and distant metastatic disease. Expand
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Cognitively unimpaired, as well as cognitively impaired adults, treated with DDAVP for a period of several days, learn information more effectively, as measured by the completeness, organization, and consistency of recall. Expand
Abnormal diurnal rhythm of plasma vasopressin and urinary output in patients with enuresis.
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