Merkel cell carcinoma: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy

@article{Amaral2017MerkelCC,
  title={Merkel cell carcinoma: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy},
  author={Teresa Amaral and Ulrike Leiter and Claus Garbe},
  journal={Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders},
  year={2017},
  volume={18},
  pages={517-532}
}
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer with a neuroendocrine phenotype. Incidence varies according to the geographic regions but is overall increasing. Different risk factors have been identified namely advanced age, immunosuppression, and ultraviolet light exposure. An association between MCC and polyomavirus infection is known. However, the exact mechanism that leads to carcinogenesis is yet to be fully understood. Surgery when feasible is the recommended treatment… 
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According to the literature, neither chemotherapy nor molecular-targeted agents or immunotherapeutic strategies have shown promising effects in the therapy of the metastatic disease of MCC so far.
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TLDR
What is known about MCC genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, and their clinical significance are summarized, and aberrant protein function and microRNA expression are examined, and the therapeutic and prognostic implications are discussed.
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Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive dermal cancer with frequent nodal metastases; truncal tumors have the worst prognosis, but remission is possible with multimodality therapy.
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Surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy appear to provide optimal local control in Merkel cell carcinoma, an aggressive cancer, with a high tendency for local recurrence and distant spread.
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TLDR
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TLDR
Multimodality therapy has shown the best results for recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma thus far, and should be used if tolerated by the patient, and Aggressive salvage surgery for local or nodal recurrence is encouraged.
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