Mere Exposure and the Endowment Effect on Consumer Decision Making

  title={Mere Exposure and the Endowment Effect on Consumer Decision Making},
  author={Gail Tom and Carolyn Christensen Nelson and Tamara Srzentic and Ryan King},
  journal={The Journal of Psychology},
  pages={117 - 125}
Previous researchers (e.g., J. A. Bargh, 1992, 2002) demonstrated the importance of nonconscious processes on consumer choice behavior. Using an advertisement, the authors determined the effect of two nonconscious processes—the mere exposure effect, which increases object preference by increasing consumer exposure to an object, and the endowment effect, which increases object valuation by providing consumer possession of an object—on consumer behavior. Although the mere exposure effect and… 

The implications of attachment through choice and order effects on the willingness-to-accept willingness-to-pay disparity

This paper looks at the impact of attachment through choice on the willingness-to-accept- willingness-to-pay disparity. It reports the results of experiments that isolate both the presence of

Attention and novelty: An experimental investigation of order effects in multiple valuation tasks

The Effects of Perceptual and Conceptual Priming on Attention and Evaluation in Commercial Breaks

While a vast number of studies have examined the effect of priming on positive evaluation towards an object, little research has been done on its effect on attention. Priming’s effect on positive

An examination of relationship between cognitive biases and customer satisfaction: empirical evidence from Thailand

PurposeThis study aims to determine the effect of cognitive biases, that is, anchoring effect, illusion of control, and endowment effect, on customer satisfaction.Design/methodology/approachAn

Neurophysiological evidence that perceptions of fluency produce mere exposure effects

The findings provide direct experimental support from both behavioral and electrophysiological measures that, in some contexts, mere exposure is the product of top-down interpretations of fluency.

Campaign Contests

I develop a formal model of political campaigns in which candidates choose how to distribute their resources over two different policy issues. I assume that campaigning on an issue has two

More than meets the eye

A growing research literature suggests that visual brand placements need not be recalled in order to have an impact on brand attitudes. In an experimental study working with an authentic television

Employees’ Subjective Valuations of Their Stock Options: Evidence on the Distribution of Valuations and the Use of Simple Anchors

Although prior research presents employees’ subjective valuations of their stock options as being either below or above firms’ opportunity cost of issuing options, we examine subjective valuations in



Attitudinal effects of mere exposure.

The hypothesis is offered that mere repeated exposure of the individual to a stimulus object enhances his attitude toward it. By "mere" exposure is meant a condition making the stimulus accessible to

Losing Consciousness: Automatic Influences on Consumer Judgment, Behavior, and Motivation

Consumer research has largely missed out on two key developments in social cognition research: the growing evidence that much of social judgment and behavior occur without conscious awareness or

Stimulus recognition and the mere exposure effect.

A meta-analysis of research on Zajonc's (1968) mere exposure effect indicated that stimuli perceived without awareness produce substantially larger exposure effects than do stimuli that are

Mere Exposure: A Gateway to the Subliminal

Empirical research shows that a benign experience of repetition can in and of itself enhance positive affect, and that such affect can become attached not only to stimuli that have been exposed but also to similar stimulus that have not been previously exposed, and to totally distinct stimuli as well.

The Endowment—Institutional Affinity Effect

  • G. Tom
  • Education
    The Journal of psychology
  • 2004
The impact of the endowment effect on institutional affinity for insignia goods is demonstrated, however, the tandem endowment-affinity effect occurs at the attitude formation stage, not when an attitude has already been formed.

Non-Conscious Influences on Consumer Choice

While consumer choice research has dedicated considerable research attention to aspects of choice that are deliberative and conscious, only limited attention has been paid to aspects of choice that

Automaticity of social behavior: direct effects of trait construct and stereotype-activation on action.

Experiment 1 showed that participants whose concept of rudeness was printed interrupted the experimenter more quickly and frequently than did participants primed with polite-related stimuli, consistent with the content of that stereotype.

Nonconscious motivations: Their activation, operation, and consequences.

Self-regulation is one of the most important aspects of human existence. Deciding which goals to pursue and then engaging in goal-directed action is a fundamental process underlying many of a

Choices, Values, and Frames

We discuss the cognitive and the psy- chophysical determinants of choice in risky and risk- less contexts. The psychophysics of value induce risk aversion in the domain of gains and risk seeking in

Nonconscious and Contaminative Effects of Hypothetical Questions on Subsequent Decision Making

In this article we examine the impact of asking hypothetical questions on respondents' subsequent decision making. Across several experiments we find that even though such questions are purely