Mental toughness in sport: Achievement level, gender, age, experience, and sport type differences

  title={Mental toughness in sport: Achievement level, gender, age, experience, and sport type differences},
  author={Adam Robert Nicholls and Remco C J Polman and Andrew R Levy and Susan H. Backhouse},
  journal={Personality and Individual Differences},
It was hypothesized that there would be significant differences in mental toughness among athletes of different: (a) achievement level, (b) gender, (c) age, (d) sporting experience, and (e) sport type (team vs. individual and contact vs. non-contact sports). Participants were 677 athletes and consisted of sports performers competing at international (n = 60), national (n = 99), county (n = 198), club/university (n = 289), and beginner (n = 31) levels. Results revealed a significant relationship… Expand

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