Mental toughness, optimism, pessimism, and coping among athletes

@article{Nicholls2008MentalTO,
  title={Mental toughness, optimism, pessimism, and coping among athletes},
  author={Adam Robert Nicholls and Remco C J Polman and Andrew R Levy and Susan H. Backhouse},
  journal={Personality and Individual Differences},
  year={2008},
  volume={44},
  pages={1182-1192}
}
The concept of mental toughness is widely used, but empirical evidence is required to fully understand this construct and its related variables. The purpose of this paper was to explore the relationship between: (a) mental toughness and coping, (b) mental toughness and optimism, and (c) coping and optimism. Participants were 677 athletes (male 454; female 223) aged between 15 and 58 years (M age = 22.66 years, SD = 7.20). Mental toughness correlated significantly with 8 of the 10 coping… Expand

Tables from this paper

The relationships among mental toughness, hardiness, optimism and coping: a structural equation modeling approach
Sport can be stressful with the time demands, emphasis on winning, and high expectations. Being able to positively reinterpret events, remain calm and relaxed under pressure, and maintain emotionalExpand
Mental Toughness, Emotional Intelligence, and Coping Effectiveness
  • R. Cowden
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Perceptual and motor skills
  • 2016
TLDR
The findings suggest that EI may be an important mechanism through which mentally tough responses and outcomes are generated and that although EI is associated with coping effectiveness, it is the attributes of MT that account for the superior coping effectiveness reported among athletes high in EI. Expand
Mental toughness and athletes' use of psychological strategies
Abstract In this study, we assessed the relationship between mental toughness and athletes' use of psychological performance strategies. Sixty-seven male (mean age 22.6 years, s=5.0) and 40 femaleExpand
Stress and Coping in Esports and the Influence of Mental Toughness
TLDR
Results showed that MT (via both MT frameworks) was associated with perceived control, andMTQ6 subscales were associated with stress intensity, and the MTQ6 and MTI had low shared variance, suggesting that the two questionnaires appear to measure different aspects of MT. Expand
Mental toughness, stress, stress appraisal, coping and coping effectiveness in sport
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between mental toughness, stressor appraisal, coping strategies and coping effectiveness among a sample of athletes. Participants wereExpand
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL TOUGHNESS AND TRAIT ANXIETY IN SPORTS
The attribute of mental toughness terminologically could be explained as an interactive combination of stable humane characteristics which inspires him or her to strive persistently for excellence.Expand
The relationship between mental toughness and affect intensity
Mentally tough athletes are conceptualized as being able to function effectively in stressful situations and recent research has found small to moderate correlations between mental toughness andExpand
Gender Differences in Mental Toughness and Coping with Injury in Runners
TLDR
Evidence is provided for how MT differences between male and female runners may be related to different coping strategies to deal with injury. Expand
Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress?
  • M. Gerber, N. Kalak, +6 authors S. Brand
  • Medicine
  • Stress and health : journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
  • 2013
TLDR
Consistent across the two samples, mental toughness mitigated the relationship between high stress and depressive symptoms, and the interaction between stress and mental toughness explained 2% of variance in the adolescent sample and 10%" of variance among young adults. Expand
Understanding Mental Toughness and Stress: The Role of Cortisol
Mental toughness research aims to understand how two people of the same skill level, experience, and background react to pressure and stress, with one succumbing to the pressure while anotherExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 41 REFERENCES
The nature of mental toughness in sport
This study investigated the components of mental toughness as reported by 131 expert coaches and 160 elite athletes from 31 sport codes. The written statements of coaches and athletes were analysedExpand
Defining and Understanding Mental Toughness within Soccer
Despite the widespread use of the term “mental toughness” by performers, coaches and sport psychology consultant’s alike, it is only recently that researchers (e.g., Jones, Hanton, & Connaughton,Expand
Dispositional Optimism and Coping: A Meta-Analytic Review
  • L. S. Nes, S. Segerstrom
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
  • 2006
TLDR
Meta-analytic findings indicate that optimists may adjust their coping strategies to meet the demands of the stressors at hand, and that the optimism-coping relationship is strongest in English-speaking samples. Expand
Coping in sport: A systematic review
TLDR
Evidence was found to support three of the different models of coping effectiveness (goodness-of-fit approach, choice of coping strategy, and automacity), and future research should address some of the methodological and measurement limitations of the sport psychology coping literature. Expand
Think Aloud: Acute Stress and Coping Strategies during Golf Performances
TLDR
Stressors and coping strategies varied throughout the six holes of golf, which support the proposition that stress and coping is a dynamic process that changes across phases of the same performance (Lazarus, 1999). Expand
What Is This Thing Called Mental Toughness? An Investigation of Elite Sport Performers
The literature on mental toughness is characterized by a general lack of conceptual clarity and consensus as to its definition, as well as a general failure to operationalize the construct in aExpand
Psychological Characteristics and Their Development in Olympic Champions
This study was designed to examine psychological characteristics and their development in Olympic champions. Ten U.S. Olympic champions (winners of 32 Olympic medals) were interviewed, as were one ofExpand
Optimism, coping, and health: assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies.
  • M. Scheier, C. Carver
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
  • 1985
TLDR
A scale measuring dispositional optimism, defined in terms of generalized outcome expectancies, was used in a longitudinal study of symptom reporting among a group of undergraduates and predicted that subjects who initially reported being highly optimistic were subsequently less likely to report being bothered by symptoms. Expand
The Psychological Performance Inventory: Is the mental toughness test tough enough?
Mental toughness, stemming in part from Loehr's 1986 classic research, is widely alluded to as a critical variable in the popular media and applied sport psychology. We evaluated the constructExpand
Stress, appraisal, and coping
Here is a monumental work that continues in the tradition pioneered by co-author Richard Lazarus in his classic book Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. Dr. Lazarus and his collaborator, Dr.Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...