Mental rotation of the neuronal population vector.

@article{Georgopoulos1989MentalRO,
  title={Mental rotation of the neuronal population vector.},
  author={Apostolos P. Georgopoulos and Joseph T. Lurito and Michael Petrides and Andrew B. Schwartz and Joe T. Massey},
  journal={Science},
  year={1989},
  volume={243 4888},
  pages={
          234-6
        }
}
A rhesus monkey was trained to move its arm in a direction that was perpendicular to and counterclockwise from the direction of a target light that changed in position from trial to trial. Solution of this problem was hypothesized to involve the creation and mental rotation of an imagined movement vector from the direction of the light to the direction of the movement. This hypothesis was tested directly by recording the activity of cells in the motor cortex during performance of the task and… 

Direct cortical representation of drawing.

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A population vector method was used to visualize the motor cortical representation of the hand's trajectory made by rhesus monkeys as they drew spirals and showed that the movement trajectory is an important determinant of motor cortical activity.

Motor cortical activity in a context-recall task.

TLDR
These findings identify the neural correlates of a switching process that is different from a mental rotation described previously, and was evident both in the activity of single cells and in the time-varying neuronal population vector.

Population-Vector Analysis by Primate Prefrontal Neuron Activities

TLDR
Results indicate that visual-to-motor transformation occurs during the delay period and that this process can be visualized by the population-vectoranalysis.

Saccades to mentally rotated targets

TLDR
Saccadic latency increased linearly with the amount of directional transformation imposed between the stimulus and the response, indicating that mental rotation is a rather general mechanism through which directional transformations are achieved.

Mental transformations in the motor cortex.

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  • 1996

Positive Feedback in the Cerebro-Cerebellar Recurrent Network May Explain Rotation of Population Vectors

TLDR
It is demonstrated that networks driven by positive feedback can account for the rotation of the direction vector observed in the motor cortex during reaching.

Dynamic remapping

TLDR
This review summarizes the results from several physiological studies in which it has been possible to characterize the responses of neurons involved in temporal and spatial remappings and describes the types of cortical representations typically encountered in dynamic remapping.

Population vector analysis of primate prefrontal activity during spatial working memory.

TLDR
Results indicate that spatial information represented by a population of prefrontal activity can be shown as the direction of the population vector and that its temporal change during spatial working memory tasks can be depicted as the temporal change of the vector's direction.

The motor cortex and the coding of force.

TLDR
The relation of cellular activity in the motor cortex to the direction of two-dimensional isometric force was investigated under dynamic conditions in monkeys and revealed that the activity of single cells was directionally tuned and this tuning was invariant across different directions of a bias force.
...

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