Mental models and human reasoning.

@article{JohnsonLaird2010MentalMA,
  title={Mental models and human reasoning.},
  author={Philip N. Johnson-Laird},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={2010},
  volume={107 43},
  pages={18243-50}
}
To be rational is to be able to reason. Thirty years ago psychologists believed that human reasoning depended on formal rules of inference akin to those of a logical calculus. This hypothesis ran into difficulties, which led to an alternative view: reasoning depends on envisaging the possibilities consistent with the starting point--a perception of the world, a set of assertions, a memory, or some mixture of them. We construct mental models of each distinct possibility and derive a conclusion… CONTINUE READING
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