# Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects

@article{Shepard1971MentalRO, title={Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects}, author={Roger N. Shepard and Jacqueline Metzler}, journal={Science}, year={1971}, volume={171}, pages={701 - 703} }

The time required to recognize that two perspective drawings portray objects of the same three-dimensional shape is found to be (i) a linearly increasing function of the angular difference in the portrayed orientations of the two objects and (ii) no shorter for differences corresponding simply to a rigid rotation of one of the two-dimensional drawings in its own picture plane than for differences corresponding to a rotation of the three-dimensional object in depth.

## 5,298 Citations

Perceptual illusion of rotation of three-dimensional objects.

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Perspective views of the same three-dimensional object in two orientations, when presented in alternation, produced an illusion of rigid rotation. The minimum cycle duration required for the illusion…

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Results show that response times are affected more by angles than axes of rotation, the specific form of the image affects error rates, and the number of 90° bends which determine the structure of an image may be an inadequate measure of form complexity for the task described here.

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Although the 33 men performed better than the 33 women when presented three-dimensional images, this sex difference disappeared when real models were used.

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Two types of joysticks, velocity and positional, were compared in terms of time, accuracy and preference for rotating a three dimensional computerized image and showed a tendency for quicker and more accurate rotation for rectilinear shapes.

Emergent two-dimensional patterns in images rotated in depth.

- PsychologyJournal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
- 1980

The experimental results converged to suggest that subjects' images accurately displayed the two-dimensional patterns emerging from a rotation in depth, however, the amount by which they rotated their image differed systematically from the amount specified by the experimenter.

The Incremental Rigidity Scheme and Long-Range Motion Correspondence

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- 1988

Experiments employing shadow projections of moving objects and computer generated displays have established that the three-dimensional shape of objects in motion can be perceived when their changing projection is observed, even when each static view is completely devoid of three- dimensional information.

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We thank Mrs. Chang [see (I)]; and we also thank Dr. J. D. Elashoff for her suggestions