Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects

@article{Shepard1971MentalRO,
  title={Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects},
  author={R. Shepard and J. Metzler},
  journal={Science},
  year={1971},
  volume={171},
  pages={701 - 703}
}
The time required to recognize that two perspective drawings portray objects of the same three-dimensional shape is found to be (i) a linearly increasing function of the angular difference in the portrayed orientations of the two objects and (ii) no shorter for differences corresponding simply to a rigid rotation of one of the two-dimensional drawings in its own picture plane than for differences corresponding to a rotation of the three-dimensional object in depth. 
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We thank Mrs. Chang [see (I)]; and we also thank Dr. J. D. Elashoff for her suggestions