Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects

  title={Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects},
  author={Roger N. Shepard and Jacqueline Metzler},
  pages={701 - 703}
The time required to recognize that two perspective drawings portray objects of the same three-dimensional shape is found to be (i) a linearly increasing function of the angular difference in the portrayed orientations of the two objects and (ii) no shorter for differences corresponding simply to a rigid rotation of one of the two-dimensional drawings in its own picture plane than for differences corresponding to a rotation of the three-dimensional object in depth. 
Perceptual illusion of rotation of three-dimensional objects.
Perspective views of the same three-dimensional object in two orientations, when presented in alternation, produced an illusion of rigid rotation. The minimum cycle duration required for the illusion
Discriminating the Structure of Rotated Three-Dimensional Figures
Results show that response times are affected more by angles than axes of rotation, the specific form of the image affects error rates, and the number of 90° bends which determine the structure of an image may be an inadequate measure of form complexity for the task described here.
Representations of apparent rotation
If perspective views of an object in two orientations are displayed in alternation, observers will experience the object rotating back and forth in three-dimensional space. Rotational motion is
On Mental Rotation in Three Dimensions
Although the 33 men performed better than the 33 women when presented three-dimensional images, this sex difference disappeared when real models were used.
Mental Rotation , and the Origins of Three-Dimensional Computer Modeling
Buildings are three-dimensional objects, but architectural communication about them occurs primarily in the two-dimensional medium of drawings.1 The use of drawings to communicate about buildings
An Evaluation of Factors Affecting Rotation Tasks in a Three-Dimensional Graphics System
Two types of joysticks, velocity and positional, were compared in terms of time, accuracy and preference for rotating a three dimensional computerized image and showed a tendency for quicker and more accurate rotation for rectilinear shapes.
Emergent two-dimensional patterns in images rotated in depth.
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The experimental results converged to suggest that subjects' images accurately displayed the two-dimensional patterns emerging from a rotation in depth, however, the amount by which they rotated their image differed systematically from the amount specified by the experimenter.
The Incremental Rigidity Scheme and Long-Range Motion Correspondence
Experiments employing shadow projections of moving objects and computer generated displays have established that the three-dimensional shape of objects in motion can be perceived when their changing projection is observed, even when each static view is completely devoid of three- dimensional information.


Elashoff for her suggestions concerning the statistical analyses. Assistance in the computer graphics was provided by the Bell Telephone Laboratories. Supported by NSF grant GS-2283 to R.N.S
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We thank Mrs. Chang [see (I)]; and we also thank Dr. J. D. Elashoff for her suggestions