Mental Models in Deductive Reasoning

@article{GarcaMadruga2002MentalMI,
  title={Mental Models in Deductive Reasoning},
  author={Juan Antonio Garc{\'i}a-Madruga and F Guti{\'e}rrez and Nuria Carriedo and Sergio Moreno and Philip N. Johnson-Laird},
  journal={The Spanish Journal of Psychology},
  year={2002},
  volume={5},
  pages={125 - 140}
}
We report research investigating the role of mental models in deduction. The first study deals with conjunctive inferences (from one conjunction and two conditional premises) and disjunctive inferences (from one disjunction and the same two conditionals). The second study examines reasoning from multiple conditionals such as: If e then b; If a then b; If b then c; What follows between a and c? The third study addresses reasoning from different sorts of conditional assertions, including… 

Unless Reasoning

The results of two experiments investigating conditional inferences from conditional unless assertions show the similarity of unless and only if, confirming that the representation of both conditionals from the outset probably include two possibilities directionally oriented from B to A; results also confirm the especial difficulty of unless assertions.

Reasoning with Exceptive Conditionals: The case of ‘Except If’

In this paper we outline a mental model theory (Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991, 2002) of reasoning about the conditional except if. We report two experiments showing that the exceptive conditional

Mental Models for the Negation of Conjunctions and Disjunctions

This study investigates why reasoning that involves negation is extremely difficult. We presented participants with reasoning problems containing sentences with negation of conjunctions and

Mental models in propositional reasoning and working memory's central executive

We examine the role of working memory's central executive in the mental model explanation of propositional reasoning by using two working memory measures: the classical “reading span” test by Daneman

The Semantics of ‘unless’ Conditionals: Evidence from ‘unless’ and Disjunctive Inferences

This experiment addresses Dancygier's claims about the semantics of ‘unless’ by examining inferential endorsements of � ‘not-A unless B’ and ‘Either B or not-A’ in the canonical order, presented the categorical premise after the conditional assertions, and in the inverse order, presenting the category premise before the conditional assertion.

The influence of verbal mood in exceptive conditional reasoning: indicative versus subjunctive.

Exceptive conditionals in the subjunctive mood lead people to think in terms of dual possibilities, whereas the indicative mood leads people to consider just one possibility.

Priming effect in affirmative complex conditional connectives

ABSTRACT We report the results of an experiment that examined the mental representations underlying the comprehension of complex conditional connectives (such as “A, on condition that B”) and the

Efectos del priming en el condicional y la conjunción negada.

An experiment is presented in which the 'principle of truth' of the Theory of Mental Models (Johnson-Laird and Byrne, 2002) is put to the test. According to this principle when people are presented

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 61 REFERENCES

Reasoning From Double Conditionals: The Effects of Logical Structure and Believability

We report three experimental studies of reasoning with double conditionals, i.e. problems based on premises of the form: If A then B. If B then C. where A, B, and C, describe everyday events. We

Deductive reasoning with factual, possible, and counterfactual conditionals

It is proposed that people construct a richer representation of conditionals that deal with possibilities rather than facts, and experiments show that reasoners make more inferences from conditionals based on possibilities rather on facts when the inferences depend on the presupposed case.

Are Conjunctive Inferences Easier than Disjunctive Inferences? A Comparison of Rules and Models

The experiments showed that the inferences were equally easy when the participants evaluated given conclusions, but that the conjunctive inferences weren’t easier than the disjunction inferences when participants drew their own conclusions.

Propositional reasoning by model.

The theory proposes that reasoning is a semantic process based on mental models that assumes that people are able to maintain models of only a limited number of alternative states of affairs, and they accordingly use models representing as much information as possible in an implicit way.

The Psychology of Proof: Deductive Reasoning in Human Thinking

In this provocative book, Lance Rips describes a unified theory of natural deductive reasoning and fashions a working model of deduction, with strong experimental support, that is capable of playing

Paralogical reasoning: Evans, Johnson-Laird, and Byrne on liar and truth-teller puzzles

Bias in Conditional Inference: Implications for Mental Models and Mental Logic

Robust findings of negative conclusion bias were found across the three experiments, although the bias was mostly restricted to DA and MT inferences, which suggests that the bias is best regarded as a difficulty with double negation.

Mental Models : Towards a Cognitive Science of Language

Mental Models offers nothing less than a unified theory of the major properties of mind: comprehension, inference, and consciousness. In spirited and graceful prose, Johnson-Laird argues that we
...