Menstrual cycle and ovary alterations in women with epilepsy on antiepileptic therapy

@article{Murialdo1997MenstrualCA,
  title={Menstrual cycle and ovary alterations in women with epilepsy on antiepileptic therapy},
  author={Giovanni Murialdo and Carlo Andrea Galimberti and Flavia Magri and Patrizia Sampaolo and Francesco Copello and Maria Vittoria Gianelli and Elisabetta Gazzerro and Alessandro Rollero and C. Deagatone and Raffaele Manni and Ettore Ferrari and Alessandro Polleri and Amelia Tartara},
  journal={Journal of Endocrinological Investigation},
  year={1997},
  volume={20},
  pages={519-526}
}
Impaired reproductive function is thought to frequently affect women with epilepsy, mainly when seizures originate in the temporal lobe. In this study, we evaluated menstrual cycle features and assessed ovulation by determining luteal progesterone (Pg) levels in 101 consecutive women with epilepsy (36 with idiopathic generalized epilepsy -IGE; 65 with partial epilepsy -PE), aged between 16 and 50 years, treated with various antiepileptic drugs (AED). PE originated in the temporal lobe (TLE) in… 
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Epilepsy in women.
  • M. Morrell
  • Medicine, Psychology
    American family physician
  • 2002
TLDR
Epilepsy in women raises special reproductive and general health concerns and children who are born to women with epilepsy are at greater risk of birth defects, in part related to maternal use of antiepileptic drugs.
Menstrual disorders in women with epilepsy
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The intricate relationship between reproductive disorders and epilepsy suggests that reproductive function should be monitored closely as part of the comprehensive care of women with epilepsy.
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References

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TLDR
The hormonal alterations observed in the patients with normal menstrual cycles seem to support the hypothesis that a neurotransmitter dysfunction might be the common pathogenetic mechanism resulting in both REDs and PGE.
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TLDR
This Finland study studied 238 women with epilepsy who were seen regularly at the Outpatient Department of the University Hospital, Oulu, Finland and found that menstrual disturbances were present in 13 of the women receiving valproate alone.
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TLDR
The results suggest a mechanism of infertility related to temporal lobe dysfunction that alters the release of hypothalamic trophic hormones that secondarily affect release of the pituitary gonadotropins, causing ovulatory failure.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
It is suggested that epilepsy may interfere with the functional activity of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator, which might give rise to a clinical reproductive endocrine disorder in epileptic women.
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TLDR
The weight gain can be progressive, and is associated with hyperinsulinemia and low serum levels of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein 1, which may lead to hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries.
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Twenty consecutive men with partial seizures of temporal lobe origin were evaluated for sexual or reproductive dysfunction. Eleven (55%) had diminished sexual interest or reduced potency. Nine of
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TLDR
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