Menopause: Adaptation or epiphenomenon?

@article{Peccei2001MenopauseAO,
  title={Menopause: Adaptation or epiphenomenon?},
  author={Jocelyn Scott Peccei},
  journal={Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues},
  year={2001},
  volume={10}
}
  • J. S. Peccei
  • Published 2001
  • Biology
  • Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues
Evolutionary biologists consider all complex design features of organisms to be ultimately the result of natural selection. As such, menopause can always be considered an adaptation. At the same time, it is also recognized that an adaptation is always morphologically, physiologically, and developmentally constrained by an organism’s phylogenetic heritage.18 The question of origin is whether menopause is primarily an adaptation, in the sense that selection directly favored a postreproductive… 
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Menopause: An evolutionary perspective
A critique of the grandmother hypotheses: Old and new
  • J. S. Peccei
  • Biology
    American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 2001
TLDR
This paper critically evaluates the evidence for and against both the grandmother hypothesis and the new grandmother hypothesis, focusing on key predictions of each.
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