Meniere's disease

@article{Nakashima2016MenieresD,
  title={Meniere's disease},
  author={Tsutomu Nakashima and Ilmari Pyykk{\"o} and Megan Anne Arroll and Margaretha L. Casselbrant and Carol A. Foster and Nauman Manzoor and Cliff A. Megerian and Shinji Naganawa and Yi-Ho Young},
  journal={Nature Reviews Disease Primers},
  year={2016},
  volume={2}
}
Meniere's disease (MD) is a disorder of the inner ear that causes vertigo attacks, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus and aural fullness. The aetiology of MD is multifactorial. A characteristic sign of MD is endolymphatic hydrops (EH), a disorder in which excessive endolymph accumulates in the inner ear and causes damage to the ganglion cells. In most patients, the clinical symptoms of MD present after considerable accumulation of endolymph has occurred. However, some patients develop symptoms… 

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A systematic review on meniere's disease to update current knowledge, focusing on its mechanisms, diagnosis, comorbidities, and practical management.

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Elder Meniere’s disease patients ultimately lose their vestibular function, and evolution of MD may progress from unilateral MD coupled with asymptomatic hydrops on opposite ear to bilateral MD, where the number 1.0-2.0 means the number of clinically affected ears.

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An updated approach to the diagnosis and management of Ménière disease is provided, detailing the natural course of MD and describing how to initiate medical therapy while awaiting consultation with otolaryngology-head and neck surgery.

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The objective of this manuscript is to review the different vHIT results in MD patients and discuss the usefulness of these findings in the identification of MD, how these results may be explained by pathophysiological mechanisms associated with MD, and finally provide directions for future studies.

The value of four stage vestibular hydrops grading and asymmetric perilymphatic enhancement in the diagnosis of Menière’s disease on MRI

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A four-stage vestibular-cochlear EH and PE grading system in combination with cochlear PE assessment gives the best diagnostic accuracy to detect MD.

Gadolinium-enhanced MRI reveals dynamic development of endolymphatic hydrops in Ménière's disease

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