Memory systems of the brain: A brief history and current perspective

  title={Memory systems of the brain: A brief history and current perspective},
  author={Larry R. Squire},
  journal={Neurobiology of Learning and Memory},
  • L. Squire
  • Published 1 November 2004
  • Biology, Psychology
  • Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

Figures from this paper

Memory systems of the brain

A historical lens is presented with which to contextualize the idea that conscious and unconscious memory processes are composed of distinct systems, and a current account for the multiple memory systems model is provided.

The hippocampus reevaluated in unconscious learning and memory: at a tipping point?

It is concluded that a tipping point has been reached, and that while conscious recollection depends critically on hippocampal integrity, the reach of the hippocampus extends to unconscious aspects of memory performance when relational memory processing and representation are required.

Mechanisms for widespread hippocampal involvement in cognition.

A theoretical framework for how the hippocampus interacts with other brain systems and cognitive processes is developed, consistent with an emerging view that the most fertile ground for discovery in cognitive psychology and neuroscience lies at the interface between parts of the mind and brain that have traditionally been studied in isolation.

Memory: Normative development of memory systems.

The hippocampus: A central node in a large-scale brain network for memory.

Memory systems 2018 – Towards a new paradigm

  • J. Ferbinteanu
  • Psychology, Biology
    Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
  • 2019

Is the hippocampus necessary for visual and verbal binding in working memory?

The Basic-Systems Model of Episodic Memory

  • D. Rubin
  • Psychology, Biology
    Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science
  • 2006
Autobiographical memory and oral traditions are used to demonstrate the usefulness of the basic-systems model in accounting for existing data and predicting novel findings, and to argue that the model is the only way to understand episodic memory for complex stimuli routinely encountered outside the laboratory.

Marr’s theory of the hippocampus as a simple memory

Converging evidence suggests instead that the hippocampus is at the apex of a multi-level cortical hierarchy that encodes progressively more abstract information at each level, and is as involved in predictive perceptual coding as it is in memory.



From Conditioning to Conscious Recollection Memory Systems of the Brain. Oxford Psychology Series, Volume 35.

The neurobiological properties of dedicated and elaborate systems to their neuropsychological counterparts are related, and in so doing, account for the phenomenology of memory, from conditioning to conscious recollection.

Episodic memory: from mind to brain.

  • E. Tulving
  • Psychology, Biology
    Annual review of psychology
  • 2002
This chapter provides a brief history of the concept of episodic memory, describes how it has changed (indeed greatly changed) since its inception, considers criticisms of it, and discusses supporting evidence provided by neuropsychological studies of patterns of memory impairment caused by brain damage, and functional neuroimaging studies of pattern of brain activity of normal subjects engaged in various memory tasks.

From Conditioning to Conscious Recollection

A primary goal of this work is to relate the nuerobiological properties of dedicated and elaborate systems to their neuropsychological counterparts and, in do doing, account for the phenomenology of memory, from conditioning to conscious recollection.

Memory and the brain.

This review summarizes some of the recent advances in the neurobiology of memory and focuses on the conscious recollection of one's experience of events and facts and on memories tied to emotional responses.

The medial temporal lobe.

This analysis draws on studies of human memory impairment and animal models of memory impairment, as well as neurophysiological and neuroimaging data, to show that this system is principally concerned with memory and operates with neocortex to establish and maintain long-term memory.

The Oxford handbook of memory

Due to the advent of neuropsychology, it has become clear that there is a multiplicity of memory systems or, at the very least, of dissociably different modes of processing memory in the brain. As

The hippocampus and contextual retrieval of information from memory: a theory.

  • R. Hirsh
  • Biology, Psychology
    Behavioral biology
  • 1974

A memory system in the monkey.

  • M. Mishkin
  • Biology, Psychology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1982
A neural model is presented, based largely on evidence from studies in monkeys, postulating that coded representation of stimuli are stored in the higher-order sensory (i.e. association) areas of the

Do hippocampal lesions produce amnesia in animals?

  • S. Iversen
  • Biology, Psychology
    International review of neurobiology
  • 1976