• Corpus ID: 7292207

Memory for Incomplete Tasks: A Re-examination of the Zeigarnik Effect *

  title={Memory for Incomplete Tasks: A Re-examination of the Zeigarnik Effect *},
  author={Colleen Seifert and Andrea L. Patalano},
An important feature of human memory is the ability to retrieve previously unsolved problems, particularly when circumstances are more favorable to their solution. Zeigarnik (1927) has been widely cited for the finding that interrupted tasks are better remembered than completed ones; however, frequent replications and non-replications have been explained in terms of social psychological variables (Prentice, 1944). The present study examines differences in memory for tasks based on completion… 

Zeigarnik and von Restorff: The memory effects and the stories behind them

Two of the best known eponymous phenomena in memory research were carried out as dissertations in the same era at the same university, each supervised by an influential researcher working within the

Memory for impasses during problem solving

The results illustrate that when impasses in problem solving are infrequent, they are more available in memory than are solved problems, and may facilitate the recognition of opportunities to return to problems that have been terminated short of solution.

Recovery, Interrupted: The Zeigarnik Effect in EMDR Therapy and the Adaptive Information Processing Model

The Zeigarnik effect (ZE) explains the formation of traumatic memories as incomplete tasks, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is proposed as uniquely capable of providing closure to interrupted facets of traumatic recollection.

The influence of open goals on the acquisition of problem-relevant information.

It was found that problem-relevant information, or hints, presented implicitly in a 2nd task in between attempts at solving problems aided problem solving, although this effect cannot be attributed to strategic behavior after participants caught on to the manipulation.

A safety mechanism for observational learning

This empirical article presents the first evidence of a “safety mechanism” based on an observational-learning paradigm, in which an observer watched a participant practicing two different motor sequences during a learning phase that was interrupted by a stop signal that precluded motor learning.

Intuitive Tip of the Tongue Judgments Predict Subsequent Problem Solving One Day Later

Results suggest that intuitive TOT judgments are indicative of subthreshold solution related activation that can facilitate eventual problem solving, especially with insight.

Unfinished tasks foster rumination and impair sleeping - particularly if leaders have high performance expectations.

The results supported the hypothesis that unfinished tasks explain unique variance in the dependent variables above and beyond the influence of time pressure and found the relationship between unfinished tasks and both rumination and sleep was moderated by leader performance expectations.

Zeigarnik’s Sleepless Nights: How Unfinished Tasks at the End of the Week Impair Employee Sleep on the Weekend Through Rumination

Higher levels of unfinished tasks over 3 months are related to increased sleep impairment on the weekend, and the results of the multilevel analysis suggest that the within-person relationship between unfinished tasks and sleep is mediated by affective rumination.

Opportunistic Planning: Being Reminded of Pending Goals

This research focuses on when and how pending goals are recognized in everyday planning situations and offers a predictive encoding model of goal representation, which provides evidence for the predictive encode model and suggests ways to facilitate the later recognition of opportunities for satisfying pending goals.

Is regret for inaction relatively self-enhancing?

Previous accounts of regret suggest that people report greater regret for inaction than for action because the former is longer lasting and more painful than the latter. We suggest instead that the



The interruption of tasks.

Psychologists still know relatively little about the influence of interruption on behavior. Such a statement made baldly in the face of so considerable a literature as has resulted from the early

Das Behalten erledigter und unerledigter Handlungen

Recall of completed and incompleted activities under varying degrees of stress.

Memory for completed and incompleted tasks as a function of personality; an analysis of group data.

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