Memory deficits in Alzheimer's patients: A comprehensive review

  title={Memory deficits in Alzheimer's patients: A comprehensive review},
  author={Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo and Marlene Oscar-Berman},
  journal={Neuropsychology Review},
Despite considerable experimental work on Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying cognitive mechanisms as well as the precise localization of neuropathological changes critical for memory loss remains undefined. A review of the neuropsychological literature on long-term memory deficits in AD patients suggests that AD patients display (a) a pervasive deficit of explicit memory, (b) a partial deficiency of implicit memory for verbal and visuoperceptual material (as measured by repetition priming… 
Implicit memory and Alzheimer's disease neuropathology.
The results suggest that hallmark indices of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology are associated with performance on priming tests to the extent that conceptual, but not perceptual, processing resources are required.
Implicit and Explicit Memory for Spatial Information in Alzheimer’s Disease
The results show that explicit spatial memory is impaired in AD patients compared with a control group, however, no group difference was found on implicit spatial function, indicating that spared implicit memory in AD extends to the spatial domain, while the explicitatial memory function deteriorates.
The neural correlates of verbal short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease: an fMRI study.
The results indicate that Alzheimer's disease patients show differences in the functional networks underlying memory over short delays, mostly in brain areas known to support phonological processing or executive functioning.
Alzheimer’s disease and memory strength: Gradual decline of memory traces as a function of their strength
A third hypothesis is discussed in light of a third hypothesis, the memory strength hypothesis, in order to better account for the progressive decline in memory performance as a function of the item type in AD.
The contribution of the study of neurodegenerative disorders to the understanding of human memory.
  • P. Panegyres
  • Psychology, Biology
    QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians
  • 2004
The investigation of human memory in neurodegenerative disorders suggests that the interaction of networks subserving episodic memory, semantic memory, and working memory contributes to higher level cognition and results in the fundamental homeostatic processes of recall and learning.
Working memory in mild Alzheimer's disease and early Parkinson's disease.
Although mild AD and early PD both impair working memory, the deficits may be related to the interruption of different processes that contribute to WM performance, which may be secondary to deficits in other cognitive capacities, including semantic memory.
Process Dissociation Analyses of Memory Changes in Healthy Aging, Preclinical, and Very Mild Alzheimer Disease: Evidence for Isolated Recollection Deficits
Findings suggest that attention-demanding memory processes, such as recollection, may be particularly sensitive to both symptomatic and preclinical AD pathology.
Different deficit patterns on word lists and short stories predict conversion to Alzheimer’s disease in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment
Comparison on tasks routinely used in the neuropsychological assessment of episodic memory to evaluate which test is more sensitive in predicting subsequent progression to AD in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment showed that stable a-MCI patients performed worse on word list than on story recall, whereas patients who later converted to AD tended to have similar poor memory performance on both tasks.
Verbal learning in Alzheimer's dementia
Abstract Many recent findings in Western countries suggest that episodic recall is the most sensitive discriminator between patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and the normal elderly, while
Verbal learning in Alzheimer's dementia.
  • A. Au, A. Chan, H. Chiu
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS
  • 2003
This first to examine in detail the episodic memory of Chinese AD patients in Hong Kong with a locally developed list learning test, comparing procedures that do or do not encourage the use of semantic organization found semantic clustering in the blocked condition to be the best predictor.


Short- and long-term memory in patients with presenile dementia (Alzheimer's disease).
  • E. Miller
  • Psychology, Biology
    Psychological medicine
  • 1973
Evidence is presented to show that patients with Alzheimer's disease owe their memory disturbance to both an impairment in short-term memory and an additional difficulty in establishing new material
The results suggest that implicit verbal memory, as well as explicit memory, is impaired in AD, and memory activation may depend on neural circuitry outside the traditional temporo-limbic memory system.
Preserved motor learning in Alzheimer's disease: implications for anatomy and behavior
  • P. Eslinger, A. Damasio
  • Psychology, Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1986
The results support the existence of two, relatively independent, learning systems related to “declarative” and “procedural” knowledge and offer additional cognitive correlates for the selective damage to neural systems recently identified in AD.
Neuropsychological evidence for multiple implicit memory systems: a comparison of Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's disease patients
The results for the PD patients suggest that the demented PD patients have endured damage to the neurologic systems subserving both motor learning and lexical priming.
Temporal ordering and short-term memory deficits in Parkinson's disease.
The results suggest that recency discrimination deficits and impaired short-term memory processing are specific cognitive deficits in PD that may be linked to subcortical deafferentation of the frontal lobes.
Intrusion errors in the figural memory of patients with Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease.
It is suggested that prior-item intrusion errors are evident on figural as well as on verbal memory tasks and that DAT patients are more likely to produce such errors than are equally demented patients with a "subcortical" dementia.