# Memory Scanning: New Findings and Current Controversies

@article{Sternberg1975MemorySN,
title={Memory Scanning: New Findings and Current Controversies},
author={Saul Sternberg},
journal={Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology},
year={1975},
volume={27},
pages={1 - 32}
}
• S. Sternberg
• Published 1975
• Psychology
• Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
Introduction : the reaction-time method in memory research. The item-recognition paradigm. Early findings and interpretations : the exhaustive-search model. Generalizations and extensions of paradigm and phenomenon. Findings that challenge the model or limit its scope, and what to do about them. Alternative models of the comparison process. 6. I Self-terminating search. 6.2 Trace-strength discrimination. 6.3 Parallel comparisons. New findings. 7.1 The translation effect. 7.2 Partial selectivity… Expand
903 Citations

#### Figures and Tables from this paper

The structure of short-term memory scanning: an investigation using response time distribution models
• Psychology, Medicine
• Psychonomic bulletin & review
• 2012
This investigation formalizes a variety of models designed to account for detailed response time distribution data in the classic Sternberg memory-scanning task, and finds that under fast presentation rate conditions, the parallel and global access models provide far better accounts of the data than does the serial model. Expand
Memory Search: A Matter of Time
Memory search is considered based on studies that have measured the retrieval dynamics of recognition and recall including the analyses of mean response time, response time distributions, and speed–accuracy trade-off functions to conclude that item recognition is based on a matching process that is carried out in parallel. Expand
Task conditions and short-term memory search: two-phase model of STM search
• Psychology
• 2016
Short-term memory (STM) search, as investigated within the Sternberg paradigm, is usually described as exhaustive rather than self-terminated, although the debate concerning these issues is stillExpand
Recency, immediate recognition memory, and reaction time
Abstract Four classes of possible mechanisms for short-term item recognition are distinguished: (I) pure list-search, (II) direct-access activation (or trace strength) discrimination, (III) mixturesExpand
A Theory of Memory Retrieval.
A theory of memory retrieval is developed and is shown to apply over a range of experimental paradigms, and it is noted that neural network models can be interfaced to the retrieval theory with little difficulty and that semantic memory models may benefit from such a retrieval scheme. Expand
Self-terminating versus exhaustive processes in rapid visual and memory search: An evaluative review
• Psychology, Medicine
• Perception & psychophysics
• 1993
This study summarizes past and recent theoretical results on the ability of self-terminating and exhaustive models to predict differences in slopes between positive and negative set-size functions, as well as position effects. Expand
Recognition memory and attentional selection: serial scanning is not enough.
• Psychology, Medicine
• Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
• 1986
In two experiments, using memory sets of up to 10 letters, the response competition paradigm was employed to investigate the extent to which extraneous visual stimuli interfere with or affect theExpand
Exhaustive Memory-Scanning and Familiarity Discrimination: Separate Mechanisms in Recognition Memory Tasks
Experiment I was a yes-no recognition task with lists of one, two or four items to remember. Each item in the experiment appeared in only one list, and each list was presented only once. One group ofExpand
Retrieval Processes in Recognition Memory
• 1976
A method of analyzing reaction time data in recognition memory is presented, which uses an explicit model of latency distributions. This distributional method allows us to distinguish betweenExpand
Reaction time and short term memory : Implication of negative set-1
High speed exhaustive scan hypothe~is was investigated using a modified Sternberg's RT technique. The difference of information processing methods under the varied response patternse establishedExpand

#### References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 91 REFERENCES
Reaction Time and Short-term Memory: Implications of Repetition Effects for the High-speed Exhaustive Scan Hypothesis *
• Computer Science
• 1973
Recognition memory for sub-span digit sequences was investigated using Stern-berg's varied-set RT technique and observed faster recognition of repeated items, which is predicted by Sternberg's highspeed exhaustive scanning hypothesis. Expand
Reaction Time Measurements in the Study of Memory Processes: Theory and Data1
This chapter presents a serial, self-terminating memory scanning model to account for human behavior in stimulus identification, naming, choice-reaction, and (memory scanning) character classification tasks. Expand
Test Stimulus Representation and Experimental Context Effects in Memory Scanning.
• Psychology
• 1971
The 5s performed a memory-scanning task in which they indicated whether or not a given test stimulus (letter or picture) matched one of a previously memorized set of letters. The test stimuliExpand
Recognition reaction time and size of the memory set: A developmental study
• Psychology
• 1970
Kindergarten, fourth-grade, and college Ss were tested on a recognition reaction-time task with memory sets of two, three, and four items. Though overall reaction time (RT) varied with age, theExpand
Retrieval of contextual information from memory
When Ss name the item that follows a test item in a short recently memorized list, their mean reaction-time ($\overline {\rm RT}$) increases linearly with list length. The linearity and slope of theExpand
Memory scans based on alternative test stimulus representations
• Psychology
• 1970
In a search task similar to that used by Sternberg (1966), Ss were presented with one of three alternative representations of a given stimulus and were required to state whether or not that stimulusExpand
Organization and long-term memory search
• D. Homa
• Psychology, Medicine
• Memory & cognition
• 1973
Evidence was presented that categories recently probed may provide for a short-circuiting of the category search, and a theory of .high-speed scanning for categorized material was proposed in which a serial and exhaustive search of the categories is first undertaken. Expand
Recognition time for information stored in long-term memory
• Computer Science
• 1971
Investigation of the effects of number of words in a target set and the nature of distractor words on the latency of both positive and negative recognition responses found response latency to be an increasing function of memory list length. Expand
Recoding processes in recognition: Some effects of presentation rate
• Psychology, Medicine
• Memory & cognition
• 1973
Character classification time was studied in a situation in which Ss sometimes had to decide whether a probe item was a translation of a remembered item according to a previously learned translation scheme, contradicting Cruse and Clifton's (1973) hypothesis that Ss translated all remembered items into the form of the probe after the probe was presented. Expand
Memory scanning for words versus categories
• Mathematics
• 1971
Two groups of Ss compared a target word with a memory set consisting of from one to four words (Group W) or from one to four semantic categories (Group C). The Ss made a positive or a negativeExpand