Memory B cells

  title={Memory B cells},
  author={Tomohiro Kurosaki and Kohei Kometani and Wataru Ise},
  journal={Nature Reviews Immunology},
The immune system can remember a previously experienced pathogen and can evoke an enhanced response to reinfection that depends on memory lymphocyte populations. Recent advances in tracking antigen-experienced memory B cells have revealed the existence of distinct classes of cells that have considerable functional differences. Some of these differences seem to be determined by the stimulation history during memory cell formation. To induce rapid recall antibody responses, the contributions of… 
Resident Memory B Cells.
The characteristics of memory B cells in various locations are described and their possible contributions to immunity and homeostasis as bona fide BRM cells are discussed.
Generation of High Quality Memory B Cells
Recent advances regarding the key signals and factors regulating germinal center-derived memory B cell development and activation are discussed and the challenges for successful vaccine development are highlighted.
Do Memory B Cells Form Secondary Germinal Centers? It Depends.
It is proposed that the production of plasmablasts or GC cells by a memory B cell is controlled by its state of differentiation and the amount and affinity of antigen-specific antibodies present in the individual in which it resides.
Memory B cell heterogeneity: Remembrance of things past
Current thoughts on the phenotypic and functional characteristics of MBCs are reviewed, focusing on a population of somatically hypermutated, high affinity IgM+ M BCs that are rapidly responsive to a secondary malaria infection.
Insights From Analysis of Human Antigen-Specific Memory B Cell Repertoires
This review discusses what has been learned thus far from analysis of diverse pathogen-specific memory B cell compartments and describes major differences in their repertoires.
Memory B cells and tuberculosis.
Generation of memory B cells and their reactivation
Recent progress in understanding of how memory B cells are generated in the pre‐GC stage and during the GC reaction, and how these memory B Cells are robustly reactivated with the help of memory Tfh cells to generate the secondary antibody response are reviewed.
Immunological memory cells
This article reviews immunological memory cells, currently represented by T and B lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, which determine a rapid and effective response against a second encounter
Multiple Levels of Immunological Memory and Their Association with Vaccination
An overview of the role of different B and T cell subsets and their interplay, the parallel and independent functions of the B1, marginal zone B cells, T-independent- and T-dependent B cell responses, as well as functions of central and effector memory T cells, tissue-resident and follicular helper T cells in the memory responses are provided.


Diversity Among Memory B Cells: Origin, Consequences, and Utility
The heterogeneity in development and phenotype of memory B cells and whether particular functions are partitioned into distinct subsets is considered and how understanding the details of generating memory may provide opportunities to develop better, functionally targeted vaccines is considered.
Multiple layers of B cell memory with different effector functions
A new mouse model of memory B cell labeling dependent on the cytidine deaminase AID is used, which shows that after immunization with a particulate antigen, B cell memory appeared in several subsets, comprising clusters of immunoglobulin M–positive and IgG1+ B cells in germinal center–like structures that persisted up to 8 months after immunized.
Multiple players in mouse B cell memory.
T-independent type II immune responses generate memory B cells
It is reported that polysaccharide antigens elicit memory B cells that are phenotypically distinct from those elicited by protein antIGens, and memory B cell responses against polysacCharides are regulated by antigen-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies.
Activation of Virus-specific Memory B Cells in the Absence of T Cell Help
Activation of virus-specific memory B cells to secrete IgG is independent of cognate or bystander T cell help, indicating thatHumoral immunity is maintained by long-lived plasma cells, constitutively secreting antibodies, and nonsecreting restingMemory B cells that are rapidly reactivated upon antigen encounter.
B Lymphocyte Memory
The data suggest that CD21/CD35 on stroma, including follicular dendritic cells, is critical to the maintenance of long-term B lymphocyte memory, and FcγRIIB−/− chimeras showed a differential phenotype with impaired splenic but normal bone marrow responses.
Germinal center selection and the development of memory B and plasma cells
A model encompassing recent data from several laboratories is presented that suggests that the GC undergoes a temporal switch that alters the nature of its output from MBCs to PCs as the response progresses, and this will be discussed in the broader context of the origins of both cell types.
Memory CD4 T Cells That Express CXCR5 Provide Accelerated Help to B Cells
It is demonstrated that memory CD4 T cells enable B cells to expand more rapidly and class switch earlier than do primary responding CD 4 T cells.