Membrane vesicles in natural environments: a major challenge in viral ecology

  title={Membrane vesicles in natural environments: a major challenge in viral ecology},
  author={Nicolas Soler and Mart Krupovic and Evelyne Marguet and Patrick Forterre},
  journal={The ISME Journal},
The production of extracellular membrane vesicles (hereafter called MVs) is a universal cellular feature, common to the three domains of life (Deatherage and Cookson, 2012). In particular, it has been known for decades that bacteria, including marine species, produce MVs in the laboratory but also in biofilms or during infections (Schooling and Beveridge, 2006; Deatherage and Cookson, 2012). However, until recently, the presence of MVs in natural environments has been largely overlooked by… CONTINUE READING
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