Membrane turnover in rod photoreceptors: ensheathment and phagocytosis of outer segment distal tips by pseudopodia of the retinal pigment epithelium.


We have documented the ultrastructural changes that occur within the photoreceptor outer segment and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) during photosensitive membrane turnover. We employed an in vitro eyecup preparation from Xenopus laevis in which a large shedding event was induced by adding the excitatory amino acid L-aspartate (Greenberger & Besharse 1985; J. comp. Neurol. 239, 361-372). We found that during L-aspartate-induced shedding the RPE cells formed, on their apical domains, previously undescribed processes that were directly involved in disc phagocytosis. These processes are structurally similar to processes formed by macrophages during phagocytosis and are accordingly referred to as pseudopodia. Pseudopodia were distinguishable from the apical villous process normally extended from the RPE in that they were closely applied to the surface of the outer segment, had a cytoplasmic matrix of low electron density that was devoid of most cellular organelles and were enriched in thin (7 nm diameter) filaments. Filament size, specific pseudopodial staining with the actin-specific probe rhodamine phalloidin and inhibition of pseudopod formation by cytochalasin D suggested that the thin filaments were composed of actin. Pseudopodial formation also occurs during a normal light-initiated shedding event. However, the low frequency of shedding, the asynchrony of the individual shedding events and the transient appearance of the pseudopodia prevented a full appreciation of their role during normal disc shedding. Associated with massive shedding and pseudopodial formation, there was an increased adherence between retina and RPE. During L-aspartate treatment, the apical portions of the RPE cells partitioned with the distal outer segment during retinal isolation. This effect was directly related to the development of pseudopodia and may reflect alteration of surface features of the rod outer segment (ROS)-RPE interface related to phagocytosis. Our observations show that transiently forming pseudopodia are the organelles of phagocytosis and that they may play a role in disc detachment as well.

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@article{Matsumoto1987MembraneTI, title={Membrane turnover in rod photoreceptors: ensheathment and phagocytosis of outer segment distal tips by pseudopodia of the retinal pigment epithelium.}, author={Brian Matsumoto and Dennis M. Defoe and Joseph C. Besharse}, journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences}, year={1987}, volume={230 1260}, pages={339-54} }