Membrane estrogen receptors activate metabotropic glutamate receptors to influence nervous system physiology.

@article{Boulware2009MembraneER,
  title={Membrane estrogen receptors activate metabotropic glutamate receptors to influence nervous system physiology.},
  author={Marissa I Boulware and Paul G Mermelstein},
  journal={Steroids},
  year={2009},
  volume={74 7},
  pages={608-13}
}
Until recently, the idea that estradiol could affect cellular processes independent of nuclear estrogen receptors was often dismissed as artifact. This in spite of a large number of carefully controlled studies performed both within and outside the nervous system demonstrating estrogens regulate various intracellular signaling pathways by acting at the membrane surface of cells and/or at biological rates incompatible with the time course of genomic-initiated events. The concept that estradiol… CONTINUE READING