Membrane Structure: Some General Principles

@article{Bretscher1973MembraneSS,
  title={Membrane Structure: Some General Principles},
  author={M. Bretscher},
  journal={Science},
  year={1973},
  volume={181},
  pages={622 - 629}
}
The arrangement of lipids and some proteins in the erythrocyte membrane has been discussed. The conclusions from this are listed here as a set of general guidelines for the structure of membranes of higher organisms: some of these rules may be wrong. But at this stage it seems useful to sharpen our thoughts in this way and thereby focus attention on various specific points. 1) The basis of a membrane is a lipid bilayer with (i) choline phospholipids and glycolipids in the external half and (ii… Expand
MEMBRANE STRUCTURE: NOW AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
TLDR
This chapter discusses the present and future prospect of lipid asymmetry, membrane proteins, carbohydrate, and membrane biosynthesis. Expand
Membrane Proteins: Structure and Arrangement in the Membrane
The membranes of a cell have the principal function of setting the boundaries between the cell and the environment and between compartments within the cell. These boundaries prevent the movement ofExpand
The Role of Lipids in the Functioning of a Membrane Protein: The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Pump
TLDR
This chapter shows the ways in which methods developed and used have led to a deeper understanding of the role of lipids in the functioning of this protein, and of the structural organization of the Lipid bilayer in the SR bilayer. Expand
The Dynamics Of Membrane Structur
The membranes of living organisms are involved in many aspects of the life, growth and development of all cells. The predominant structural elements of these membranes are lipids and proteins and theExpand
THE ORGANIZATION OF PROTEINS IN THE HUMAN RED BLOOD CELL MEMBRANE
  • T. Steck
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of cell biology
  • 1974
TLDR
This article will focus on the localization and modes of association of individual major polypeptides within the human red cell membrane. Expand
Molecular structure of biological membranes: functional characterization.
  • S. Malhotra
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Sub-cellular biochemistry
  • 1978
TLDR
From the ensuing text it will become apparent that the current understanding of the molecular structure of membranes has advanced over the generalized Danielli-Davson (1935) or the unit membrane (Robertson, 1959) models. Expand
Asymmetry of influenza virus membrane bilayer demonstrated with phospholipase C
TLDR
The consistency between the present findings and pevious findings with red cell membranes suggest an asymmetric phospholipid distribution of this type may be a general feature of plasma membrane Structure. Expand
Significance of minor glycerolipids in membrane structure and function.
TLDR
There is a range of possible functions for individual membrane lipids which encompasses both the general and the highly specific; many of these protein-lipid interactions, and thus the functions of the proteins, are probably relatively constant over considerable periods. Expand
Transfer of phospholipids between membrane
TLDR
It is interesting to note that the current membrane model accentuates the fluidity of the membrane, which phospholipids undergo a rapid lateral diffusion within the two monolayers of the bilayer. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 69 REFERENCES
GLOBULAR LIPID MICELLES AND CELL MEMBRANES.
  • J. Lucy
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of theoretical biology
  • 1964
TLDR
It is suggested that, in some circumstances, biological membranes may be composed of both kinds of globular subunits, and that this arrangement would provide a means of localizing enzymic and hormonal activity within the plane of the lipid layer of the membrane. Expand
DISCUSSION PAPER: MEMBRANE PROTEINS
  • G. Guidotti
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1972
TLDR
It is found that a variety of procedures can fractionate the membrane of the erythrocyte with identical results: namely, the membrane breaks up into small vesicles with the liberation of about 10-20% of the proteins free of lipid or carbohydrate components. Expand
The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Structure of Cell Membranes
A fluid mosaic model is presented for the gross organization and structure of the proteins and lipids of biological membranes. The model is consistent with the restrictions imposed by thermodynamics.Expand
Structure of Biological Membranes
  • E. Korn
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Science
  • 1966
The combined x-ray diffraction and electron microscopic examination of myelin has provided reasonable, but not conclusive, support for its structure as a basically bimolecular leaflet of phospholipidExpand
Biological membrane structure, I. The protein crystal model for membranes.
  • G. Vanderkooi, D. E. Green
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1970
TLDR
A geometric model for the arrangement of phospholipid and protein in biological membrane systems has been proposed and all the lipid known to be present in membranes can be accommodated in this manner. Expand
Human erythrocyte membranes: specific labelling of surface proteins.
  • M. Bretscher
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Journal of molecular biology
  • 1971
TLDR
A very reactive, highly radioactive reagent designed to acylate amino groups has been synthesized: this compound, the sulphone of 35 S-labelled formylmethionyl methyl phosphate, cannot pass through the red blood cell membrane. Expand
Association of high‐molecular weight proteins in the red cell membrane
TLDR
There is a correspondence between the two high-molecular weight chains, from which it can be inferred that they are uniquely associated with one another in a pairwise manner. Expand
On the biological role of glycoproteins.
  • E. Eylar
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of theoretical biology
  • 1966
TLDR
It is predicted that the carbohydrate unit need play no functional role in biologically active proteins, that the starch unit in glycoproteins from the same cell would be identical or very similar, and that glycoprotein biosynthesis would involve similar primary or tertiary structures at those regions in the protein molecules where the carbohydrates unit is attached. Expand
Red cell membrane glycoprotein: amino acid sequence of an intramembranous region.
TLDR
It is proposed that the hydrophobic sequence of approximately 23 residues comprises the intramembranous domain of human erythrocyte glycophorin and is intimately and possibly specifically associated with lipids of the membrane. Expand
Chemical modification of erythrocyte membranes: double labeling with acetic anhydride.
TLDR
The results of the double labeling procedure suggest that the structure of the membrane of the intact cell may be different from that of the isolated ghost and that caution must be exercised in deducing membrane structure solely from studies of isolated membranes. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...