Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound, has commonly been used as a food additive or in many traditional medicine remedies for over 2,000 years in many Asian countries. Melatonin is a hormone secreted from pineal glands of mammals and possesses diverse physiological functions. Both curcumin and melatonin have the effective potential to inhibit proliferation of various types of cancers, but there is no report on their combination for bladder cancer treatment, and the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether the combination of curcumin and melatonin leads to an enhanced inhibition of cell proliferation in bladder cancer cells. Our results showed that the combinational treatment enhanced the repression of nuclear translocation of NF-κB and their binding on COX-2 promoter via inhibiting IKKβ activity, resulting in inhibition of COX-2 expression. In addition, combined treatment with curcumin and melatonin induced cell apoptosis in bladder cancer through enhancing the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol. These results, therefore, indicated that melatonin synergized the inhibitory effect of curcumin against the growth of bladder cancer by enhancing the anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and pro-apoptotic activities, and provide strong evidence that combined treatment with curcumin and melatonin might exhibit an effective therapeutic option in bladder cancer therapy.