Melatonin in mice: rhythms, response to light, adrenergic stimulation, and metabolism.

  title={Melatonin in mice: rhythms, response to light, adrenergic stimulation, and metabolism.},
  author={David J. Kennaway and Athena Voultsios and Tamara J Varcoe and Robert W. Moyer},
  journal={American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology},
  volume={282 2},
  • D. KennawayA. Voultsios R. W. Moyer
  • Published 1 February 2002
  • Biology, Medicine
  • American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
There has been relatively little research conducted on pineal melatonin production in laboratory mice, in part, due to the lack of appropriate assays. We studied the pineal and plasma rhythm, response to light, adrenergic stimulation, and metabolism of melatonin in CBA mice. With the use of a sensitive and specific melatonin RIA, melatonin was detected in the pineal glands at all times of the day >21 fmol/gland in CBA mice but not in C57Bl mice. Both plasma and pineal melatonin levels peaked 2… 

Figures from this paper

Melatonin and activity rhythm responses to light pulses in mice with the Clock mutation.

Results provide compelling evidence that mice with the Clock(Delta19) mutation express essentially normal rhythmicity, albeit with an underlying endogenous period of 26-27 h, and they can be entrained by brief exposure to light.

Influence of Daytime LED Light Exposure on Circadian Regulatory Dynamics of Metabolism and Physiology in Mice.

Exposure of C3H mice to bLAD compared with CWF has a marked positive effect on the circadian regulation of neuroendocrine, metabolic, and physiologic parameters associated with the promotion of animal health and wellbeing that may influence scientific outcomes.

The influence of red light exposure at night on circadian metabolism and physiology in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Chronic use of low-intensity rLEN from a common safelight disrupts the circadian organization of neuroendocrine, metabolic, and physiologic parameters indicative of animal health and wellbeing.

Effects of Daytime Exposure to Light from Blue-Enriched Light-Emitting Diodes on the Nighttime Melatonin Amplitude and Circadian Regulation of Rodent Metabolism and Physiology.

Daylight exposure of rats to LED light with high blue emissions has a marked positive effect on the circadian regulation of neuroendocrine, metabolic, and physiologic parameters associated with the promotion of animal health and wellbeing and thus may influence scientific outcomes.

Effects of spectral transmittance through standard laboratory cages on circadian metabolism and physiology in nude rats.

Temporal coordination of circadian rhythms of physiology and metabolism can be altered markedly by changes in the spectral quality of light transmitted through colored standard rodent cages.

Daytime Blue Light Enhances the Nighttime Circadian Melatonin Inhibition of Human Prostate Cancer Growth.

Data show that the amplification of nighttime melatonin levels by exposing nude rats to blue light during the daytime significantly reduces human prostate cancer metabolic, signaling, and proliferative activities.

Effect of spectral transmittance through red-tinted rodent cages on circadian metabolism and physiology in nude rats.

The findings indicate that spectral transmittance through red-colored cages significantly affects circadian regulation of neuroendocrine, metabolic, and physiologic parameters, potentially influencing both laboratory animal health and wellbeing and scientific outcomes.

Effects of Nocturnal Light on (Clock) Gene Expression in Peripheral Organs: A Role for the Autonomic Innervation of the Liver

Investigation of the immediate effect of nocturnal light exposure on clock genes and metabolism-related genes in different organs of the rat and the role of the autonomic nervous system as a possible output pathway of the SCN to modify the activity of the liver after light exposure demonstrated that light affects liver gene expression not only via the hormonal pathway but also via the autonomics input.

Light at night, melatonin and breast cancer

The case against melatonin being responsible for the LAN effects on tumor growth is inadvertently strengthened, as it would not be unreasonable to conclude that the LAN did in fact decrease melatonin production.

Dark-phase light contamination disrupts circadian rhythms in plasma measures of endocrine physiology and metabolism in rats.

Circadian patterns of plasma melatonin, glucose, lactic acid, and corticosterone were maintained in all rats except those exposed to constant bright light or the highest level of light during the dark phase, thereby potentially altering the endocrine physiology and metabolism of experimental animals and influencing the outcome of scientific investigations.



Relationship of atypical melatonin rhythm with two circadian clock outputs in B6D2F(1) mice.

  • X. M. LiX. H. Liu F. Lévi
  • Biology
    American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • 2000
Plasma and pineal contents displayed large and statistically significant circadian changes, with a composite rhythm of period (24 + 12 h), which possibly contributes to a similar coupling between chronopharmacology mechanisms and the rest-activity cycle in these mice and in human subjects.

Day/night serotonin levels in the pineal gland of male BALB/c mice with melatonin deficiency.

It is concluded that in melatonin-deficient BALB/c mice, pineal serotonin synthesis is apparently intact and serotonin synthesis and release do not appear to be directly or indirectly regulated by beta-adrenergic mechanisms.

Melatonin and Light Induce Phase Shifts of Circadian Activity Rhythms in the C3H/HeN Mouse

The results suggest that the circadian timing system controlling the rhythm of wheel-running activity in the C3H/HeN mouse is responsive to both light and melatonin, and multi- ple melatonin treatments are required to induce phase shifts.

Circadian rhythm of mt1 melatonin receptor expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the C3H/HeN mouse 1

Results suggest that mt1 melatonin receptor rhythm in the C3H/HeN mouse SCN is regulated both by light and by the biological clock as distinct rhythms of both mRNA and protein are differentially expressed under a LD cycle and constant dark conditions.

HPLC validation of a circadian melatonin rhythm in the pineal gland of inbred mice

  • A. ContiGeorges J.M. Maestroni
  • Biology
    Journal of pineal research
  • 1996
The presence of melatonin in the pineal gland of C57B1/6, BALB/c, and AKR mice is validated by HPLC determinations and a short‐term melatonin peak in the middle of the dark period with a pattern which mirrors that found previously in the serum.

Daily Variations in Pineal Melatonin Concentrations in Inbred and Outbred Mice

Melatonin was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay in 1 strain of outbred mice (OF1 Swiss) and 4 strains of inbred mice, 2 of them being known to synthesize melatonin (CBA and C3H) and the 2

Melatonin Content of the Pineal Gland in Different Mouse Strains

The results have indicated that only five inbred strains have pineal melatonin content, with higher levels during the night and lower levels in the day; the other 31 strains do not contain detectable melatonin in their pineal gland at any of times examined.

Different Mechanisms of Phase Delays and Phase Advances of the Circadian Rhythm in Rat Pineal N-Acetyltransferase Activity

The circadian rhythm in rat pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, which drives the rhythm in melatonin production, is controlled by a pacemaker located in the su prachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which is suitable for studies of the entrainment of the pacemaker by environmental light.

Genetic control of melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland of the mouse.

Genetic analysis suggests that melatonin deficiency in C57BL/6J mice results from mutations in two independently segregating, autosomal recessive genes.