Melasma is a common acquired hyperpigmentary disorder of the face. However, the pathogenesis of melasma remains largely unknown and the treatment is still challenging. This article discusses histology of melasma in view of melanin pigmentation with a more in depth question about number of melanocytes and melanophages in dermis of melasma. We also explore the current understanding of etiopathogenesis of melasma. We conclude the review with a discussion of important issues that should be addressed in future research to find effective treatment modality of melasma.