Melasma: a clinical, light microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunofluorescence study.

@article{Snchez1981MelasmaAC,
  title={Melasma: a clinical, light microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunofluorescence study.},
  author={N{\'e}stor P. S{\'a}nchez and Madhu A. Pathak and Shinichi Sato and Thomas B. Fitzpatrick and J. L. S{\'a}nchez and Martin C Mihm},
  journal={Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology},
  year={1981},
  volume={4 6},
  pages={
          698-710
        }
}

Melasma: Treatment strategy

TLDR
Melasma, a hypermelanosis of the face, is a common skin problem of middle-aged women of all racial groups, especially with dark complexion, and genetic influences, exposure to sunlight, pregnancy, oral contraceptives, estrogen-progesterone therapies, thyroid dysfunction, cosmetics, and drugs have been proposed.

Melasma in Men

TLDR
Epidermal hyperpigmentation only and epidermal and dermal Hypermelanosis were found in histologic analysis of the cases and three patterns of localization were recognized, namely, centrofacial, malar, and mandibular.

MELASMA: A CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

TLDR
The clinicoepidemiological pattern and the precipitating or provocation factors in melasma are studied, finding an association with endocrinal diseases and observing that 5 of them had hypothyroidism.

Treatment of melasma with potent topical corticosteroids.

TLDR
Initial clearance of pigmentation with clobetasol propionate was encouraging though the success was shortlived, and the patients were advised to use a sun screen and Histopathologically, the pigmentation is either epidermal or dermal.

Melasma Treated with Intense Pulsed Light

TLDR
Intense pulsed light stands out as an effective tool in the treatment and healing of a high percentage of hypermelanosis and melasma, with a very low risk of complications and an excellent satisfaction rate among patients.

The treatment of melasma: a review of clinical trials.

Treatment of Melasma: The Journey Ahead

555 Melasma, a commonly acquired hypermelanosis, presents as symmetrical irregular to dark-brown macules on sun-exposed areas such as the face, particularly over the forehead and malar areas, and

Melasma in Orientals

TLDR
Melasma is an acquired hyperpigmentary disorder commonly seen in Orientals and multiple causative factors have been implicated in the aetiology; sunlight appears to be the most important in causing and aggravating the condition in susceptible individuals.

Confocal Microscopy in Diagnosis and Management of Melasma: Review of

TLDR
Reflectance Confocal Microscopy emerges as a reliable adjuvant technique for the classification, diagnosis and overall management of melasma.

Diagnosis of Melasma in Brown Skin: Wood’s Lamp, Dermoscopy, and Confocal Microscopy

TLDR
The diagnosis of melasma is usually made clinically and is rather straightforward due to its characteristic appearance, but the use of additional tools such as Wood’s lamp, dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may help to identify the depth of the pigment.
...

References

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TLDR
The dyschromia is characterized by the insidious development of a blotchy hyperpigmentation of the face in essentially healthy adult women predominantly, although one man is included in this series.

Occurrence of skin pigmentation during mesantoin therapy.

TLDR
Six cases of idiopathic epilepsy, which were partially controlled by large doses of mesantoin® and other anticonvulsants, in all of which a peculiar identical pigmentation of the skin appeared on the face and neck in the course of therapy are reported.

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TLDR
The etiologic factor was determined by indirect evidence, to be due to the action of mercury present in the face creams used by patients who were susceptible, and showed the presence of a pigment in the skin, which was soluble in compound solution.

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A retired civil servant, aged 66, was from his boyhood subject to frequent attacks of a condition diagnosed as "influenza," which recurred three or four times a year, and an attack in 1946 left him with the loss of the senses of smell and taste.

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TLDR
Chloasma during pregnancy, or from ovarian disorders, has been well known for many years, but with the introduction of oral contraceptives of the progestational type, a pseudo "mask of pregnancy" has appeared with no mention in the dermatologic literature of such pigmentary anomalies from oral contraceptives.

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TLDR
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TLDR
The object of the present paper is to explore the phenomenon of secondary areola formation and establish the fact that the female sex hormones are largely responsible for the pigmentary skin.

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TLDR
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Localization of melanin pigmentation in the skin with Wood's lamp

Examination of the skin or hair with Wood's lamp has long been used to aid in the clinical diagnosis of some cutaneous disorders. A new observation reported here illustrates that Wood's light can be

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White skin transplanted on to a pigmented area of a spotted black-and-white guinea-pig becomes blackened, and black skin transplanted on to a white area blackens the surrounding white skin. This