Melanotan II injection resulting in systemic toxicity and rhabdomyolysis

@article{Nelson2012MelanotanII,
  title={Melanotan II injection resulting in systemic toxicity and rhabdomyolysis},
  author={Michael E. Nelson and Sean M. Bryant and Steven E. Aks},
  journal={Clinical Toxicology},
  year={2012},
  volume={50},
  pages={1169 - 1173}
}
Introduction. Melanotan products are currently purchased over the Internet and are designed to induce melanogenesis to create sunless tanning as well are used as sexual stimulants. We report a novel case of systemic toxicity with sympathomimetic excess and rhabdomyolysis after use of Melanotan II. Case report. A 39 year-old Caucasian male injected subcutaneously 6 mg of Melanotan II purchased over the Internet in an attempt to darken his skin during wintertime. This dose was six times the… 
Melanotan II overdose associated with priapism
TLDR
A 60-year-old man who had subcutaneously injected 10 mg of Melanotan II into his abdomen, he developed a painful erection and required surgical intervention, resolving the priapism, and was asymptomatic except for a residual hyperpigmented patch at the injection site.
Melanoma Associated with the Use of Melanotan-II
TLDR
Clinicians are advised to be aware of the problem, and counsel their at-risk patients regarding the potential hazards related to the use of MT-II, as the drug is unlicensed and incompletely tested.
Risks of unregulated use of alpha‐melanocyte‐stimulating hormone analogues: a review
TLDR
Increasing numbers of case reports indicate that the unregulated use of both melanotan I and II is associated with cutaneous complications, particularly melanocytic changes in existing moles and newly emerging (dysplastic) nevi.
Melanotan II: a possible cause of renal infarction: review of the literature and case report
TLDR
In the mechanism of renal injury with Melanotan II, thrombotic pharmacological influence and possible direct toxic effect on renal parenchyma must be considered.
Eruptive naevi and darkening of preexisting naevi 24 h after a single mono-dose injection of melanotan II
A 24-year-old male bodybuilder reported the eruption of multiple new naevi and darkening of pre-existing naevi 24 h after a single subcutaneous injection of illegally acquired melanotan II.
Update on tanning: More risks, fewer benefits.
Identification and characterization by LC-UV-MS/MS of melanotan II skin-tanning products sold illegally on the Internet.
New methods were developed and validated to determine the identity, contents, and purity of samples of melanotan II, a synthetic melanocortin receptor agonist, sold in vials as injectable
Emerging drugs of abuse.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 33 REFERENCES
Increased Eumelanin Expression and Tanning is Induced by a Superpotent Melanotropin [Nle4-d-Phe7]-α-MSH in Humans¶
TLDR
The results show that the tanning induced by MT-I in the face and forearm is associated with a significant increase in the eumelanin content of the human skin.
Melanotropic peptides: more than just ‘Barbie drugs’ and ‘sun‐tan jabs’?
TLDR
Subcutaneous self‐administration of unregulated products labelled as melanotan I and/or II, synthetic analogues of α‐melanocyte stimulating hormone (α‐MSH), as obtained via the internet, tanning salons and gyms and of the potential impurity of these products await full determination.
Skin Pigmentation and Pharmacokinetics of Melanotan‐I in Humans
TLDR
A comparative pharmacokinetic trial was performed with a superpotent synthetic melanotropic peptide, [Nle4‐D‐Phe7]‐α‐MSH1–13 (melanotan‐I or MT‐I) given by three routes of administration and it is concluded that SC administration is an efficacious method of delivering melanotan•I.
Rhabdomyolysis in the Intensive Care Unit
TLDR
Early, aggressive resuscitation with either normal saline or lactated Ringer’s solution to maintain an adequate urine output is the most important intervention in preventing the development of acute renal failure.
Effects of a superpotent melanotropic peptide in combination with solar UV radiation on tanning of the skin in human volunteers.
TLDR
Melanotan-1 can be safely combined with UV-B light or sunlight and appears to act synergistically in the tanning response to light.
[Nle4-D-Phe7]-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone significantly increased pigmentation and decreased UV damage in fair-skinned Caucasian volunteers.
TLDR
The potential ability of a synthetic hormone that augments melanin production to provide photoprotection to people who normally burn in direct sunlight is shown for the first time.
Counterfeiting in performance- and image-enhancing drugs.
TLDR
Analysis of samples obtained from the underground market revealed the presence of skin commensal organisms, which may have contributed to the development of abscesses and the extent of available counterfeit products was established.
Change in moles linked to use of unlicensed “sun tan jab”
TLDR
A new factor complicating presentation and diagnosis of pigmented lesions1: unlicensed use of melanotropic peptides offered online as Melanotan I and II.
...
...