Melanopsin cells are the principal conduits for rod–cone input to non-image-forming vision

@article{Gler2008MelanopsinCA,
  title={Melanopsin cells are the principal conduits for rod–cone input to non-image-forming vision},
  author={A. D. G{\"u}ler and J. Ecker and G. Lall and Shafiqul Haq and C. Altimus and H. Liao and A. Barnard and Hugh B. Cahill and T. Badea and Haiqing Zhao and M. Hankins and D. Berson and R. Lucas and K. Yau and S. Hattar},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2008},
  volume={453},
  pages={102-105}
}
Rod and cone photoreceptors detect light and relay this information through a multisynaptic pathway to the brain by means of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). These retinal outputs support not only pattern vision but also non-image-forming (NIF) functions, which include circadian photoentrainment and pupillary light reflex (PLR). In mammals, NIF functions are mediated by rods, cones and the melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Rod–cone photoreceptors… Expand
Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion-Cell Photoreceptors: Cellular Diversity and Role in Pattern Vision
TLDR
It is reported that ipRGCs are more abundant and diverse than previously appreciated, project more widely within the brain, and can support spatial visual perception. Expand
Differential Cone Pathway Influence on Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cell Subtypes
TLDR
It is found that the On pathway forms the primary excitatory synaptic input to both M1 and M2 cells, indicating a surprising differential reliance upon cone-mediated phototransduction by ipR GC subpopulations and suggesting that ipRGC subtypes signal diverse photic information to various non-image-forming visual centers. Expand
Multiple photoreceptors contribute to nonimage-forming visual functions predominantly through melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells.
TLDR
Under conditions where melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells were genetically ablated, image formation is maintained, whereas circadian photoentrainment and pupillary light reflex are severely impaired. Expand
Blurring the Boundaries of Vision: Novel Functions of Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells
  • A. Matynia
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of experimental neuroscience
  • 2013
TLDR
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) contain the photopigment melanopsin, which is independently capable of photon detection while also receiving synaptic input from rod and cone photoreceptors via bipolar cells. Expand
Melanopsin and Mechanisms of Non-visual Ocular Photoreception*
In addition to rods and cones, the mammalian eye contains a third class of photoreceptor, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (ipRGC). ipRGCs are heterogeneous irradiance-encodingExpand
Mouse Ganglion-Cell Photoreceptors Are Driven by the Most Sensitive Rod Pathway and by Both Types of Cones
TLDR
Spectral analysis revealed that both types of cones, the M- and S-cones, contribute to this response and that both cone types drive ON responses, which contrasts with the blue-OFF, yellow-ON chromatic opponency reported in primate ipRGCs. Expand
Ultrastructure of Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cell Circuitry in the Retina and Brain Regions that Mediate Light-Driven Behavior
TLDR
Significant differences in the ultrastructure of mRGC axonal terminals in mR GC-recipient brain regions, stratification-specific differences inmRGC dendrites, and catalog the intraretinal connections specific to m RGC subtypes are shown. Expand
Melanopsin and Cone Photoreceptor Inputs to the Afferent Pupil Light Response
TLDR
The visual system uses the L–, M–, and S–cone photoreceptor inputs to the afferent pupil pathway to accomplish the tonic modulations of pupil size to changes in image contrast. Expand
The role of melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells in the pupillary responses of human and non-human primates
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the macaquePLR is still present after the pharmalogical blockade of rod and cone photoreceptors, and that the residual PLR is driven exclusively by the melanopsinmediated intrinsic response of ipRGCs, and the intrinsic response exclusively drives sustained post stimulus pupilloconstriction in both humans and non-human primates. Expand
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.
TLDR
The early work that provided the motivation for searching for a new mammalian photoreceptor, the ground-breaking discoveries, current progress that continues to reveal the unusual properties of these neuron photoreceptors, and directions for future investigation are reviewed. Expand
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