Melanopsin cells are the principal conduits for rod–cone input to non-image-forming vision

@article{Gler2008MelanopsinCA,
  title={Melanopsin cells are the principal conduits for rod–cone input to non-image-forming vision},
  author={Ali Deniz G{\"u}ler and Jennifer L. Ecker and Gurprit S. Lall and Shafiqul Haq and Cara M. Altimus and Hsi-Wen Rock Liao and Alun R Barnard and Hugh B. Cahill and Tudor Constantin Badea and Haiqing Zhao and Mark W. Hankins and David M. Berson and Robert J Lucas and K. K. C. Yau and Samer S Hattar},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2008},
  volume={453},
  pages={102-105}
}
Rod and cone photoreceptors detect light and relay this information through a multisynaptic pathway to the brain by means of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). These retinal outputs support not only pattern vision but also non-image-forming (NIF) functions, which include circadian photoentrainment and pupillary light reflex (PLR). In mammals, NIF functions are mediated by rods, cones and the melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Rod–cone photoreceptors… CONTINUE READING
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