Melanopsin Is Required for Non-Image-Forming Photic Responses in Blind Mice

@article{Panda2003MelanopsinIR,
  title={Melanopsin Is Required for Non-Image-Forming Photic Responses in Blind Mice},
  author={Satchidananda Panda and Ignacio Provencio and Daniel C. Tu and Susana Salgado Pires and Mark D. Rollag and Ana Maria Castrucci and Mathew T. Pletcher and Trey K. Sato and Tim Wiltshire and Mary Andahazy and Steve A. Kay and Russell N. Van Gelder and John B. Hogenesch},
  journal={Science},
  year={2003},
  volume={301},
  pages={525 - 527}
}
Although mice lacking rod and cone photoreceptors are blind, they retain many eye-mediated responses to light, possibly through photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. These cells express melanopsin, a photopigment that confers this photosensitivity. Mice lacking melanopsin still retain nonvisual photoreception, suggesting that rods and cones could operate in this capacity. We observed that mice with both outer-retinal degeneration and a deficiency in melanopsin exhibited complete loss of… 

Residual photosensitivity in mice lacking both rod opsin and cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide gated channel 3 α subunit

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In addition to rods and cones, the mammalian eye contains a third class of photoreceptor, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (ipRGC). ipRGCs are heterogeneous irradiance-encoding

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Effect of circadian clock gene mutations on nonvisual photoreception in the mouse.

The effect of cryptochrome loss on nonvisual photoreception is due to loss of the circadian clock nonspecifically, which modulates the sensitivity of nonvisual Photoreception.

Melanopsin-Dependent Non-Visual Responses by Light : Evidence for Photopigment Bistability in vivo

It is found that pre-stimulation with long wavelength light not only restores but enhances single unit responses of SCN neurons to 480 nm light, whereas the long-wavelength stimulus alone fails to elicit any response.

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells detect light with a vitamin A-based photopigment, melanopsin.

  • Yingbin FuH. Zhong K. Yau
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
Study of mice lacking RPE65, a protein essential for the regeneration of rod and cone pigments, and exogenous all-trans-retinal was also able to rescue the low sensitivity of rpe65-/- ipRGCs suggest melanopsin could be a bistable pigment.

Multiple photoreceptors contribute to nonimage-forming visual functions predominantly through melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells.

Under conditions where melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells were genetically ablated, image formation is maintained, whereas circadian photoentrainment and pupillary light reflex are severely impaired.
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