Melanoidin and aldocyanoin microspheres: Implications for chemical evolution and early precambrian micropaleontology

  title={Melanoidin and aldocyanoin microspheres: Implications for chemical evolution and early precambrian micropaleontology},
  author={Dean H. Kenyon and Arie Nissenbaum},
  journal={Journal of Molecular Evolution},
SummaryTwo new classes of organic microspheres are described. One of them (melanoidin) is synthesized from amino acids and sugars in heated aqueous solutions. The other (aldocyanoin) is formed in aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide and formaldehyde at room temperature.The general properties of these microspheres, including conditions of synthesis, size and shape, mechanical and pH stability, and solubility, are compared with corresponding properties of other −protocell− model systems. It is… 

Aldocyanoin microspheres: Partial amino acid analysis of the microparticulates formed from simple reactants under various conditions

It was determined that themicrospheres contained amino acids and that specific amino acids could be incorporated into the microspheres by adding the requisite aldehyde or ketone precursor to the model mixture.

Growth of Organic Microspherules in Sugar-Ammonia Reactions

  • A. Weber
  • Materials Science
    Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres
  • 2005
Reaction of small sugars of less than four carbons with ammonia in water yielded organic microspherules generally less than ten microns in size, viewed as possible containers for prebiotic catalytic processes relevant to the origin of life.

Spontaneous Assembly of Cell-Like Structures From Likely Prebiotic Materials - Problems and Prospects

The chemical and morphological structure of cell-like spherical and filamentous structures and their interactions with amphiphilic species have been investigated in considerably more detail here, and may have implications for life-detection on other planets and in the geological record.

Origins and Emergent Evolution of Life: The Colloid Microsphere Hypothesis Revisited

  • R. Egel
  • Biology
    Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres
  • 2014
In this protein-centered scenario, the emergent coevolution of uncoded peptides, metabolic cofactors and oligoribonucleotides was primarily optimized for system-supporting catalytic capabilities arising from nonribosomal peptide synthesis and nonreplicative ribonucleotide polymerization, which in turn incorporated other reactive micromolecular organics as vitamins and cofactor into composite macromolecules colloid films and microspheres.

Construction of protocellular structures under simulated primitive earth conditions

Three kinds of protein envelopes were constructed in situ from amino acids under simulated primitive earth conditions such as a fresh water tide pool, a warm sea, and a submarine hydrothermal vent and studied their formation and characteristics.

Primordial transport of sugars and amino acids via Schiff bases

Experimental support is given for a model concerning the origin of a primordial transport system. The model is based on the facilitated diffusion of amino acids stimulated by aliphatic aldehyde

The Sugar Model: Catalysis by Amines and Amino Acid Products

  • A. Weber
  • Chemistry
    Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere
  • 2004
The demonstration that the alanine catalyzes the conversion of glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde to pyruvaldehyde indicates that this synthetic pathway is capable ofautocatalysis, and the relevance of this synthetic process, named the Sugar Model, to the origin of life is discussed.

Facilitated diffusion as a method for selective accumulation of materials from the primordial oceans by a lipid-vesicle protocell

A model is proposed for the selective accumulation of amino acids, sugars, nucleotides, cations and protons from the primordial oceans into a lipid vesicle type of protocell using simple, primordial, lipid-soluble carriers.

The Sugar Model: Catalytic Flow Reactor Dynamics of Pyruvaldehyde Synthesis from Triose Catalyzed by Poly-L-Lysine Contained in a Dialyzer

  • A. Weber
  • Chemistry, Biology
    Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere
  • 2004
The dialyzer method of catalyst containment was selected because it provides a simple and easily manipulated experimental system for studying the dynamics and evolutionary development of confinedautocatalytic processes related to the origin of life underanaerobic conditions.



Studies in prebiotic synthesis. II. Synthesis of purine precursors and amino acids from aqueous hydrogen cyanide.

Biomolecules from HCN

It has been established by combination GC/MS that the amino acids glycine, diaminosuccinic acid, α-amino-isobutyric acid, aspartic acid, alanine and isoleucine are released on acid hydrolysis of the ‘HCN polymer’.

Abiotic, Graphitic Microstructures in Micaceous Metaquartzite about 3760 Million Years Old from Southwestern Greenland: Implications for Early Precambrian Microfossils.

An Early Precambrian micaceous metaquartzite subjected to low to moderate metamorphism in the Isua area of Southwestern Greenland was derived from the erosion of preexisting rocks which were probably

Dehydration Condensation in Aqueous Solution

These experiments were designed to demonstrate one possible means by which such compounds could have been formed on the prebiotic Earth, thus providing materials needed for the origin of living systems.

The mechanism and protobiochemical relevance of dicyanamide-medicated peptide synthesis.


  • S. Fox
  • Biology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1972
It is concluded that a proteinoid microsystem was a common ancestor of all life on earth and that alpha-amino acids were made to react to form linear chains of proteinoids.

Possible abiotic origin of precambrian microfossils

Les microsphères obtenues par irradiation UV du thiocyanate d'ammonium sont comparées du point de vue morphologique, chimique et de certaines propriétés physiques, à certains microfossiles

Cell-like structures from simple molecules under simulated primitive earth conditions

La transition de l'évolution géochimique aux protocellules semble être une étape admissible selon le résultat de nos expériences.