Melanin pigmentation in mammalian skin and its hormonal regulation.

  title={Melanin pigmentation in mammalian skin and its hormonal regulation.},
  author={Andrzej T. Slominski and Desmond J. Tobin and Shigeki Shibahara and Jacobo Wortsman},
  journal={Physiological reviews},
  volume={84 4},
Cutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory control by multiple agents interacting via pathways activated by receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms, in hormonal, auto-, para-, or intracrine fashion. Because of the multidirectional nature and heterogeneous character of the melanogenesis modifying agents, its controlling factors are not… 

Retinoids Modulate MITF: A Novel Mechanism in the Regulation of Melanogenesis - eScholarship

9-cis retinoic acid, a molecule important in cellular differentiation and the product of ALDH1A1 catalysis in vitamin A metabolism, stimulates the accumulation of pigment, TYR and MITF mRNAs, and TYR protein in melanoma cells and primary human epidermal melanocytes, and provides key evidence that targeting this enzyme may be appropriate in the development of novel therapeutics for hyperpigmentary disorders.

microRNAs in the Regulation of Melanogenesis

Bringing to light the biological function of miRNAs could lead to a wider understanding of epigenetic melanogenesis regulation and its dysregulation, which may constitute the basis for developing innovative treatment approaches for pigmentation dysregulation.

Signaling Pathways in Melanogenesis

The regulatory mechanisms involved in melanogenesis are discussed and how intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate melanin production are explained, as well as the regulatory roles of different proteins involved in pigment molecules that are endogenously synthesized by melanocytes.

Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of human skin melanogenesis and pigmentation

A bioinformatic interaction network gathering the multiple aspects of melanogenesis and skin Pigmentation as a resource to better understand and study skin pigmentation biology is developed.

Melanoma, Melanin, and Melanogenesis: The Yin and Yang Relationship

It is proposed that inhibition of melanogenesis in advanced melanotic melanoma represents a realistic adjuvant strategy to enhance immuno-, radio-, and chemotherapy.

Mechanisms regulating melanogenesis*

The identification and comprehension of the melanogenesis mechanism facilitate the understanding of the pathogenesis of pigmentation disorders and the development of potential therapeutic options.

Update on the regulation of mammalian melanocyte function and skin pigmentation.

A number of new factors that are involved in that regulation have recently been reported, such as factors that regulate melanosome pH and ion transport, which are important to the biochemistry of pigment synthesis and the biogenesis of melanosomes.

Paracrine regulation of melanogenesis

An overview of recent advances in determining the intimate relationships between melanocytes and their surrounding elements are provided, which provide insights into the complex nature of the regulation of melanogenesis.

Neuroendocrine functions of melanocytes: beyond the skin-deep melanin maker.

The neuroendocrine functions of melanocytes are updated and the possible involvement of melanocyte in the control of the central chemosensor that generates respiratory rhythm is discussed.

Nonclassical Sex Hormone Signaling In Melanocytes And Melanoma

Previously unknown mechanisms by which female sex steroids influence melanocytes are identified and utilized to develop a novel melanoma therapy that establishes, for the first time, the therapeutic benefit of combining differentiation drivers with cancer immunotherapy.



Epidermal melanocytes : their regulation and role in skin pigmentation

While there has been some debate concerning the pigmentary significance of the POMC peptides there now seems little doubt that these peptides are capable of stimulating human melanocytes.

The melanosome: the perfect model for cellular responses to the environment.

Studies targeted at elucidating the regulatory mechanisms involved and the functional changes that result demonstrate that the melanosome is the perfect model to study such biological response mechanisms.

Molecular cascades in UV-induced melanogenesis: a central role for melanotropins?

Available evidence supports a model in which melanotropins and their receptors play a central role in the process, and there are mechanisms in the skin for the orderly, regulated reception of UV signals that are then transduced to initiate the cascade.

New regulators of melanin biosynthesis and the autodestruction of melanoma cells

Three new factors which control melanin synthesis are described which appear to protect cells from the cytotoxic effects of melanin precursors, and indicates that regulation of the melanin biosynthetic pathway is more complex than previously supposed.

Cyclic AMP a key messenger in the regulation of skin pigmentation.

It appears that melanogenic gene expression is controlled by a complex network of regulation involving other transcription factors such as Brn2, TBX2, PAX3 and SOX10, which would finally allow a fine tuning of melanocyte differentiation leading to melanin synthesis.

The regulatory basis of melanogenic switching.

The results support Ito's hypothesis, and suggest that melanogenic switching may be due to a jump between two stable production pattern states when the tyrosinase activity varies between two bifurcation levels, implying that small changes in the levels of external regulatory factors may cause an accentuated change in the proportion of the produced colour pigments.

Modification of melanogenesis in cultured human melanoma cells

Since the hamster amelanotic melanoma line shows profound metabolic and cellular changes accompanying the induction of melanin synthesis by DMEM or L-tyrosine, it is tested whether the changes in pigmentation level in human melanoma cells are similarly accompanied by increased expression of tyrosinasc and MC1R genes.

Enzymatic control of pigmentation in mammals

  • V. HearingK. Tsukamoto
  • Biology
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 1991
Future research should provide a greater understanding of the enzymatic interactions, processing, and tissue specificity that are important to pigmentation in mammals.

Regulation of Melanogenesis in Melanocytes

The thesis pursued in this review explores the importance of the melanosome as the final common pathway of regulation of melanin biosynthesis.

Signaling pathways mediating melanogenesis.

Recent progress in identifying signal transduction pathways that mediate melanogenesis is reviewed, which is the key physiologic defense against sun-induced injuries such as sunburn, photocarcinogenesis and photoaging.