Mediterranean diet and multiple health outcomes: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials

@article{Dinu2018MediterraneanDA,
  title={Mediterranean diet and multiple health outcomes: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials},
  author={Monica Dinu and Giuditta Pagliai and Alessandro Casini and Francesco Sofi},
  journal={European Journal of Clinical Nutrition},
  year={2018},
  volume={72},
  pages={30-43}
}
Research has shown that a greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduced risk of major chronic disease. [] Key Result Thirteen meta-analyses of observational studies and 16 meta-analyses of RCTs investigating the association between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and 37 different health outcomes, for a total population of over than 12 800 000 subjects, were identified.

Mediterranean diet and adiposity in children and adolescents: A systematic review

TLDR
There is only limited evidence of a beneficial effect of following a traditional Mediterranean diet to maintain a healthy body weight in childhood and more high‐quality intervention and longitudinal data are needed to form the base of large‐scale health programs to prevent childhood obesity.

The Effect of the Mediterranean Diet on Metabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials in Adults

TLDR
A consistent direction of beneficial effect of the MD was observed for the vast majority of outcomes examined, suggesting the MD’s benefits on metabolic health, supports the need to promote this dietary pattern to adult populations.

The associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and physical fitness in young, middle-aged, and older adults: A protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

TLDR
This systematic review and meta-analysis protocol is designed for updating evidence on the associations between adherence to overall Mediterranean diet (and specific Mediterranean foods) and physical fitness levels in young, middle-aged, and older adults.

The Mediterranean diet and health: a comprehensive overview

TLDR
It is likely that the combination of a healthy diet with social behaviours and the way of life of Mediterranean regions makes the MedDiet a sustainable lifestyle model that could likely be followed in other regions with country‐specific and culturally appropriate variations.

The Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Health: A Critical Review

TLDR
Criteria for causality was met, potential sources of controversies did not represent any reason to compromise the main findings of the available observational studies and randomized controlled trials, and the available evidence is large, strong, and consistent.

Effect of Promoting the Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Metabolic Risk Factors in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled

TLDR
The data presented here provide systematically identified evidence that concurrently promoting the MD and PA is likely to provide an opportunity for metabolic risk reduction, due to the high degree of heterogeneity, and the small number of included studies, findings from the pooled analysis should be interpreted with caution.

Osteoarthritis and the Mediterranean Diet: A Systematic Review

TLDR
Three studies included in this systematic review demonstrated some relation between osteoarthritis and a Mediterranean diet, however, prospective and longer interventions are required to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the Mediterranean diet to improve symptomatology and preventing OA.

Mediterranean diet and mortality in the elderly: a prospective cohort study and a meta-analysis.

TLDR
A prospective cohort study and a meta-analysis showed that closer adherence to the MD was associated with prolonged survival in elderly individuals, suggesting the appropriateness for older persons to adopt/preserve the MD to maximise their prospects for survival.

Effects of Popular Diets on Anthropometric and Cardiometabolic Parameters: An Umbrella Review of Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials.

TLDR
Among all the diets evaluated, the Mediterranean diet had the strongest and most consistent evidence of a beneficial effect on both anthropometric parameters and cardiometabolic risk factors.

Adherence to Mediterranean diet associated with health-related quality of life in children and adolescents: a systematic review

TLDR
The findings suggest a positive correlation of MD adherence with HRQoL in children and adolescents, however, future research is needed to strengthen the evidence of this relationship.
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Dietary patterns, Mediterranean diet, and cardiovascular disease

TLDR
Consistent evidence suggests that the promotion of the Mediterranean dietary pattern is an effective and feasible tool for the prevention of CVD.

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

TLDR
Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of diabetes, and these results seem to be clinically relevant for public health, in particular for encouraging a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern for primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

A journey into a Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review with meta-analyses

TLDR
The Mediterranean diet was associated with better glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors than control diets, including a lower fat diet, suggesting that it is suitable for the overall management of type 2 diabetes.

Mediterranean diet and health status: an updated meta-analysis and a proposal for a literature-based adherence score

TLDR
The Mediterranean diet was found to be a healthy dietary pattern in terms of morbidity and mortality and a literature-based adherence score was proposed that can represent an easy tool for the estimation of adherence to the Mediterranean diet also at the individual level.

Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of developing cognitive disorders: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

TLDR
Dose-response analysis indicated a trend of an approximately linear relationship of the Mediterranean diet score with the incident risk of cognitive disorders, and further studies of randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm the observed association in different populations.

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome occurrence: a meta-analysis of observational studies

TLDR
Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome and it can be proposed for the primary prevention of the MetS.

Mediterranean diet and weight loss: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

TLDR
Mediterranean diet may be a useful tool to reduce body weight, especially when the Mediterranean diet is energy-restricted, associated with physical activity, and more than 6 months in length.