Mediterranean Diet, Cognitive Function, and Dementia: A Systematic Review

@article{Lourida2013MediterraneanDC,
  title={Mediterranean Diet, Cognitive Function, and Dementia: A Systematic Review},
  author={Ilianna Lourida and Maya Soni and Jo Thompson‐Coon and Nitin B Purandare and Iain Lang and Obioha C. Ukoumunne and David J. Llewellyn},
  journal={Epidemiology},
  year={2013},
  volume={24},
  pages={479–489}
}
Background: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has been associated with lower risk of various age-related diseases including dementia. Although narrative reviews have been published, no systematic review has synthesized studies on the association between Mediterranean diet adherence and cognitive function or dementia. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of 11 electronic databases (including Medline) of published articles up to January 2012. Reference lists, selected journal contents, and… 
Mediterranean Diet, Cognitive Function, and Dementia: A Systematic Review of the Evidence.
TLDR
It is concluded that adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with better cognitive performance, but it should be noted that the majority of findings come from epidemiologic studies that provide evidence for a correlation between the MD and cognition but not for a cause-and-effect relation.
Dietary Pattern, Diet Quality, and Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.
TLDR
Adherence to a healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower risk of overall dementia and further randomized controlled trials are needed to provide additional evidence about the role of a healthy diet on the development and progression of dementia.
Effect of the Mediterranean diet on cognition and brain morphology and function: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
TLDR
This first published review of randomized controlled trials investigating Mediterranean diet effects on cognition or brain morphology and function with an additional focus on intervention diet quality found that the Mediterranean diet modulates the effect of several genotypes associated with dementia risk for some cognitive outcomes, with mixed results.
Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of developing cognitive disorders: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
TLDR
Dose-response analysis indicated a trend of an approximately linear relationship of the Mediterranean diet score with the incident risk of cognitive disorders, and further studies of randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm the observed association in different populations.
The Association between the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Cognitive Health: A Systematic Review
TLDR
Results from this review indicate that the Mediterranean diet could play a major role in cognitive health and risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.
Mediterranean diet and cognitive health: an update of available knowledge
TLDR
Overall, available evidence suggests that the MeDi might exert a long-term beneficial effect on brain functioning, however, more high-powered observational studies with long- term follow-up for cognition and randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of shifting to a MeDi on cognitive functions are still needed in various populations.
The Impact of Adherence to the Traditional Mediterranean Diet and Sex Differences on Global Cognitive Functioning: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
TLDR
There might be a stronger association between MedDiet and cognitive functioning for older adults from Mediterranean countries compared to other geographical locations, perhaps due to higher adherence and/or longer exposure over the life course.
The Impact of the Mediterranean Diet on the Cognitive Functioning of Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
TLDR
The strongest evidence suggests a beneficial effect of the MeDi on older adults' global cognition and considers possible mechanisms.
n-3 Fatty acids, Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in normal aging: A systematic review
Mediterranean Diet and Age-Related Cognitive Decline: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
TLDR
In an older population, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with olive oil or nuts is associated with improved cognitive function, and this work is likely to be a first step towards addressing the underlying cause of dementia in patients at high cardiovascular risk.
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References

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Accruing evidence on benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on health: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.
TLDR
This updated meta-analysis confirms the significant and consistent protection provided by adherence to the Mediterranean diet in relation to the occurrence of major chronic degenerative diseases.
Adherence to a Mediterranean diet, cognitive decline, and risk of dementia.
TLDR
Higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with slower MMSE cognitive decline but not consistently with other cognitive tests, and higher adherence was not associated with risk for incident dementia.
Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older adults
TLDR
The possibility that the Mediterranean diet may affect not only the risk for Alzheimer's disease, but also the evolution of cognitive performances a long time before the clinical diagnosis of dementia and subsequent disease course constitutes major promising results.
The Mediterranean diet is not related to cognitive change in a large prospective investigation: the PATH Through Life study.
  • N. Cherbuin, K. Anstey
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
  • 2012
TLDR
Adherence to Mediterranean diet was not found to be protective against cognitive decline but excessive caloric intake, and high intake of monounsaturated fats was predictive of mild cognitive impairment.
Mediterranean diet in predementia and dementia syndromes.
TLDR
Evidence was provided that adherence to the MeDi may affect not only the risk for AD, but also for predementia syndromes and their progression to overt dementia, which might open new ways for the prevention and management of cognitive decline and dementia.
Mediterranean diet and mild cognitive impairment.
TLDR
Higher adherence to the MeDi is associated with a trend for reducing risk of developing MCI and with reduced risk of MCI conversion to AD.
Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline
TLDR
Essential components of the Mediterranean diet – MUFA, cereals and wine – seem to be protective against cognitive decline, and dietary antioxidants and supplements, specific macronutrients ofThe Mediterranean diet, oestrogens and anti-inflammatory drugs may act synergistically with other protective factors, opening up new therapeutic interventions for cognitive decline.
Adherence to a Mediterranean-type dietary pattern and cognitive decline in a community population.
TLDR
The Mediterranean dietary pattern as captured by the MedDiet scoring system may reduce the rate of cognitive decline with older age.
Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population.
TLDR
Greater adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet is associated with a significant reduction in total mortality.
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