Medicinal plants used for musculoskeletal disorders in Navarra and their pharmacological validation.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE This paper provides important ethnopharmacological information on plants used in respiratory affections in Navarra. MATERIAL AND METHODS Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews with 667 informants in 265 locations. In order to confirm the pharmacological validation of the uses claimed by the informants, monographs from Official International Agencies (ESCOP, Commission E, WHO and EMA) were reviewed. A literature review was conducted focusing on the plants that were widely used but had no published monograph. RESULTS A total of 456 pharmaceutical uses was reported, for 79 plants and 34 families, mainly represented by Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Crassulaceae and Malvaceae. The most frequently used parts were the aerial parts followed by inflorescences and leaves. Twenty-two out of 79 plants (28%) and 270 of 456 uses (42%), had already been pharmacologically validated. CONCLUSIONS The authors propose Verbena officinalis for validation.