Medical robotics—Regulatory, ethical, and legal considerations for increasing levels of autonomy

@article{Cambias2017MedicalRE,
  title={Medical robotics—Regulatory, ethical, and legal considerations for increasing levels of autonomy},
  author={James Cambias and Kevin Robert Cleary and Eric Daimler and J. M. Drake and Pierre E. Dupont and Nobuhiko Hata and Peter Kazanzides and Sylvain Martel and Rajnikant V. Patel and Veronica J. Santos and Russell H. Taylor},
  journal={Science Robotics},
  year={2017},
  volume={2}
}
A proposed framework for regulatory, ethical, and legal discussions identifies six levels of autonomy for medical robotics. The regulatory, ethical, and legal barriers imposed on medical robots necessitate careful consideration of different levels of autonomy, as well as the context for use. 

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    Acknowledgments: This Editorial originated from some of the discussions held at the Halcyon Dialogue jointly organized by the S&R Foundation and the AAAS on 1 February 2016 at the Halcyon House