Medical robotics—Regulatory, ethical, and legal considerations for increasing levels of autonomy

  title={Medical robotics—Regulatory, ethical, and legal considerations for increasing levels of autonomy},
  author={James Cambias and Kevin Robert Cleary and Eric Daimler and James M. Drake and Pierre E. Dupont and Nobuhiko Hata and Peter Kazanzides and Sylvain Martel and Rajnikant V. Patel and Veronica J. Santos and Russell H. Taylor},
  journal={Science Robotics},
A proposed framework for regulatory, ethical, and legal discussions identifies six levels of autonomy for medical robotics. The regulatory, ethical, and legal barriers imposed on medical robots necessitate careful consideration of different levels of autonomy, as well as the context for use. 

Autonomy in surgical robots and its meaningful human control

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The EU Proposal for Regulating AI: Foreseeable Impact on Medical Robotics

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The framework's foreseeable impact on research in medical robotics, classified among the high-risk applications and thus subject to a heavy regulatory burden, is discussed and issues connected with developing medical robots with progressively higher levels of autonomy are explored.



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The beneficial effects of corrupting the link between operator and remote environment by introducing abstract perceptual information into the interface called virtual fixtures are described.

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    Acknowledgments: This Editorial originated from some of the discussions held at the Halcyon Dialogue jointly organized by the S&R Foundation and the AAAS on 1 February 2016 at the Halcyon House