Transplastomic expression of a modified human papillomavirus L1 protein leading to the assembly of capsomeres in tobacco: a step towards cost-effective second-generation vaccines
The use of plants for medicinal purposes dates back thousands of years but genetic engineering of plants to produce desired biopharmaceuticals is much more recent. As the demand for biopharmaceuticals is expected to increase, it would be wise to ensure that they will be available in significantly larger amounts, on a cost-effective basis. Currently, the cost of biopharmaceuticals limits their availability. Plant-derived biopharmaceuticals are cheap to produce and store, easy to scale up for mass production, and safer than those derived from animals. Here, we discuss recent developments in this field and possible environmental concerns.