Mediation in Syria: initiatives, strategies, and obstacles, 2011–2016

  title={Mediation in Syria: initiatives, strategies, and obstacles, 2011–2016},
  author={Magnus Lundgren},
  journal={Contemporary Security Policy},
  pages={273 - 288}
  • Magnus Lundgren
  • Published 3 May 2016
  • Political Science
  • Contemporary Security Policy
ABSTRACT This article investigates mediation efforts in Syria from the outbreak of the civil war in 2011 through the spring of 2016. It describes the principal initiatives, analyses differences and similarities across mediators, and identifies strategic obstacles that prevented substantive progress. Focusing on mediation initiatives undertaken by the Arab League and the United Nations, it finds that there is considerable path dependence across efforts and that most of the limited achievements… 

Assessing the Astana Peace Process for Syria: Actors, Approaches, and Differences

Abstract Since 2011, numerous peace initiatives have been initiated out by several actors to end the Syrian civil war in a peaceful way. This article presents the “Astana Peace Process” brokered by

Power mediators and the ‘illiberal peace’ momentum: ending wars in Libya and Syria

Abstract The civil conflicts that erupted in the Middle East and North Africa as a consequence of the failure of the 2011 Arab uprisings show the limits of mediation as a tool for conflict resolution

Assessing Context-Specific Peacebuilding Approaches in Contemporary Armed Conflicts: From High-Level Mediation to Middle-Out Linkage in Syria and from Adaptive Mediation to Nationally-Owned Peacebuilding in Mozambique

As contemporary armed conflicts become increasingly complex, peacebuilding actors have been unable to prevent or respond effectively to related crises. Considering the policy trends evoked by the

International mediation in Syria's complex war : strategic implications

This chapter offers a critical inquiry of the current process of United Nations (UN)-Arab League mediation in the Syrian war, in order to explain the effectiveness and implications of international

The politics of international chemical weapon justice: The case of Syria, 2011–2017

ABSTRACT There has been near-universal condemnation of the use of chemical weapons in the Syrian conflict. The international community has nevertheless struggled to make progress on holding the

“Sisters in Peace”: Analyzing the Cooperation between the United Nations and the European Union in Peace Mediation

This article examines UN–EU cooperation over peace mediation. It compares their conceptual approaches to peace mediation and the evolution of their institutional capacities, demonstrating that the

The Barriers and Weaknesses of Kofi Annan’s Mediation Efforts in Syria

The use of mediation in violent conflicts is favoured by international actors as it acts as a frugal method of intervention, bypassing the costs associated with military aid for a cheaper, more

Reconciling fighters, settling civilians: the making of post-conflict citizenship in Syria

ABSTRACT The absence of an internationally-mandated peace process for Syria has allowed the Syrian regime to embark on a post-conflict reconstruction process unperturbed by international norms and

Strategic coercion and international mediation of atrocity-related conflict

This article explains the role of coercion in international mediation of violent conflict involving atrocity crimes from the parties’ perspectives. It draws on coercion theory and expands the

Failed agreements and their impact on subsequent mediation onset and success in intrastate conflicts

  • Levke Aduda
  • Political Science
    International Interactions
  • 2019
ABSTRACT What impact do failed mediated agreements have on subsequent mediation onset and success? The question of mediation onset and success is undoubtedly important, given that mediation is one of



Why Is Mediation So Hard? The Case of Syria

This chapter examines how changes in the types of conflicts, the variable availability of mediators, and the international environment affect current mediation. In so doing it looks at external

Peacemaking in Syria: Barriers and Opportunities

One of the worst political and humanitarian crises since the Second World War, the civil war in Syria has caused more than 200,000 deaths, displaced half of the country’s population, and effectively

Kofi Annan's Multilateral Strategy of Mediation and the Syrian Crisis: The Future of Peacemaking in a Multipolar World?

This article examines the multilateral mediation strategy attempted by Kofi Annan in Syria in 2012. In a world of fragmenting power, can international mediation in civil wars be effective at the new

Diplomacy and Other Forms of Intervention in Civil Wars

Much of the empirical literature suggests that outside interventions tend to lengthen the expected duration of civil wars; conversely, the policy community often acts as if it holds the opposite

Kofi Annan, Syria and the Uses of Uncertainty in Mediation

One year after Kofi Annan presented his six-point plan for ending the Syrian civil war, it can only be called a failure. But it is necessary to recall the situation facing the UN-Arab League envoy

Leanings and Dealings: Exploring Bias and Trade Leverage in Civil War Mediation by International Organizations

Two characteristics of mediators – bias and leverage – are discussed intensively in the research on international mediation. However, whereas bias and leverage have been examined in mediation by

Bargaining, Bias and Peace Brokers: How Rebels Commit to Peace

What is the role of biased mediators in bringing belligerents to a negotiated settlement in internal armed conflicts? Previous research has suggested that biased third parties may mitigate commitment

The Timing of Peace Initiatives:Hurting Stalemates and Ripe Moments

While most studies on peaceful settlement of disputes see the substance of the proposals for a solution as the key to a successful resolution of conflict, a growing focus of attention shows that a

The Syrian Jihad: Al-Qaeda, the Islamic State and the Evolution of an Insurgency

The eruption of the anti-Assad revolution in Syria has had many unintended consequences, among which is the opportunity it offered Sunni jihadists to establish a foothold in the heart of the Middle

Agreement without Peace? International Mediation and Time Inconsistency Problems

Mediation has competing short- and long-term effects. In the short run, the actors are better able to identify and settle on a mutually satisfying outcome. In the long run, mediation can create