Mediastinitis, pseudo-aneurysm formation, aortic bleed, and death from endoscopic botulinum toxin injection.


Endoscopic botulinum toxin injection is considered a safe and viable option for the management of achalasia [1,2]. Although esophageal perforation and mediastinitis are well-documented complications of this treatment, pseudo-aneurysm formation of the thoracic aorta following intersphincteric injection is exceedingly rare [3]. We report the first published… (More)
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-107074