Crystalline carbonate- and sodium-and-carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CO3HAp and NaCO3HAp) powders were prepared at room temperature via a heterogeneous reaction between Ca(OH)2/CaCO3/Na2CO3 and (NH4)2HPO4 aqueous solution using the mechanochemical hydrothermal route. X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and chemical analysis were performed. Room temperature products were phase-pure CO3HAp and NaCO3HAp containing 0.8-12 wt% of carbonate ions in the lattice. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the median agglomerate size of the room temperature CO3HAp and NaCO3HAp powders was in the range of 0.35-1.6 microm with a specific surface area between 82 and 121 m2/g. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the carbonated HAp powders consisted of mostly submicron aggregates of nanosized, approximately 20 nm crystals. The synthesized carbonated apatite powders exhibit chemical compositions and crystallinities similar to those of mineral constituents of hard tissues and therefore are promising for fabrication of bone-resembling implants.